Product FAQs

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I've updated AVA from v1.0 to v1.1, but I now can't control my equipment. What's wrong?
If you had purchased an AVA licence and then later updated your AVA software version from v1.0 to v1.1, and you have lost your control functionality (can only use demo mode), it is likely that your AVA Care had expired.

To check your AVA Care expiry date, open up the AVA software, click on 'Help' on the bottom left, and then view the 'AVA Care Support' dates under the licence information.

AVA Care is a special package that entitles you to free software updates as well as priority technical support.

If your AVA Care has expired and you would like to renew to make use of these benefits, please contact our Customer Service team at sales@radleys.co.uk.

Otherwise, you will need to uninstall AVA v1.1, and reinstall AVA v1.0 from our website.
What's the difference between an AVA update and an AVA upgrade?
An AVA update refers to a new version of AVA, with bug fixes and additional features.  If you have valid AVA Care Support, you can update your AVA software for free.  The current version of AVA is v1.1.

An AVA upgrade refers to moving between AVA software levels.  AVA software is available in four levels.  As the level increases, you are able to control additional device types.  If you have purchased an AVA licence level 1, 2 or 3, you can pay to upgrade to a higher level for more functionality.
Are AVA experiment files from different software versions compatible?
You can use experiment files created in AVA v1.0 in AVA v1.1.

(Note that in some cases, drivers may change when you open the old file in new AVA - e.g. an RZR driver may switch to the new Hei-TORQUE + RZR driver.)

However, experiment files created in AVA v1.1 will not work in v1.0.
What's new in the AVA update v1.1?
In November 2016 we launch a new version of AVA: v1.1.

This updated version of AVA brings a number of benefits:
  • New device drivers - you can control more laboratory equipment than ever before, including new device categories such as conductivity meters.
  • Step end conditions tolerances - specify how close to the setpoint you need to be before the step is considered complete.
  • Physical device set-up information - more help with configuring your devices to enable them to communicate with AVA.
  • Wider ranges for device settings - a wider range of PID values possible for advanced control, wider speed ranges for peristaltic pumps, a wider pH range possible for sensing/control, and an increased maximum hotplate temperature range.
  • Increased warnings (to provide more information - e.g. AVA Care expiry).
  • Some minor bug fixes.

You can download AVA v1.1 from our website.  Note: if you have purchased an AVA licence, you will only be able to use v1.1 if your AVA Care is valid.  Please see our other FAQ posts for further information.

Which additional devices (lab equipment) can I use with AVA v1.1?
AVA software update v1.1 is compatible with even more equipment than the original AVA v1.0.

The additional devices you can control with AVA v1.1 are as follows:
  • Cole-Parmer Masterflex peristaltic pumps
  • Heidolph Hei-FLOW + Pump Drive PD peristaltic pumps
  • Watson-Marlow 530Du peristaltic pump
  • Heidolph Hei-TORQUE overhead stirrers
  • Sartorius Entris balances
  • Jenway 3520 pH meter
  • Knick 703 conductivity meter
  • M+W Instruments (Bronkhorst) MASS-STREAM gas monitors
  • Omega PXM409 pressure transducer

The final three devices listed are new device types (not just models) for AVA.

All the other devices that were compatible with AVA v1.0 are still compatible with AVA v1.1.

Note that, with all versions of AVA, you can only control third party devices if you have purchased a level 4 licence.  (In the demo version, you can simulate control of all devices.)
How can I get the new version of AVA (update to v1.1)? Is it free?
You can update your AVA software from v1.0 to v1.1 for free, as long as you have valid AVA Care or are only using the demo version.

You can download it from our website.

You will need to uninstall AVA v1.0 from your computer (via Windows Control Panel) before you then install v1.1.

Important

If you have already purchased an AVA licence (rather than just using the demo version), you should only should only install AVA v1.1 if you have valid AVA Care.

To check whether your AVA Care is in date or expired, open up the AVA software, click 'Help' on the left hand side, and view your 'AVA Care Support' dates under the licence information.

AVA Care is a special package that entitles you to free software updates as well as priority technical support.

If your AVA Care has expired and you would like to renew to make use of these benefits, please contact our Customer Service team at sales@radleys.co.uk.

What parts are included in RR210000 Reactor-Ready Pilot Core?

It is easy to order a Reactor-Ready Pilot system.

Part number RR210000 Reactor-Ready Pilot Core includes all the following items:

RR210000 Reactor-Ready Pilot Core

Vessel kits, optional glassware accessories, overhead stirrer motors, circulators (thermoregulators), and any software are then ordered separately.

What parts are included in RR121300 Reactor-Ready Duo Core?

It is easy to order a Reactor-Ready Duo system.

Part number RR121300: Reactor-Ready Duo Core includes all the following items:

RR121300 Reactor-Ready Duo Core

Please note, for Reactor-Ready Duo, manifolds and vessel-to-manifold hoses are not included in the Core. You order these separately, and can choose from the following two options:

  • RR121305: Single Circulator Manifold + Hose Kit
  • RR121310: Double Circulator Manifold + Hose Kit

Vessel kits, optional glassware accessories, overhead stirrer motors, circulators (thermoregulators), and any software are also ordered separately.

What parts are included in RR121000 Reactor-Ready Core?
It is easy to order a Reactor-Ready system.

Part number RR121000: Reactor-Ready Core includes all the following items:

RR121000 Reactor-Ready Core

Vessel kits, optional glassware accessories, overhead stirrer motors, circulators (thermoregulators), and any software are then ordered separately.

How can I view my AVA licence number and level?
Within the AVA software, click on the 'File' tab (top left) and then 'Help'.  This page will show you the details of the licence you have activated (if any), as well as the expiry date of your AVA Care.

AVA licence information




















You can also see your AVA licence level at the top right of the AVA software window.  If no licence is activated, you will only see the 'Demo' and 'Upgrade' icons.

AVA licence level
What spare parts are available for my Reactor-Ready or Reactor-Ready Pilot stirrer guide?
Reactor-Ready PTFE stirrer guide
















The common consumables for the Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Pilot stirrer guides are the ferrule, shaft seal and bearing seal inside the top of the stirrer guide, as shown below. Please note that these parts are included in the maintenance kits (part number RR121150 for Reactor-Ready and RR210100 for Reactor-Ready Pilot; see separate FAQ entry on maintenance kits for full part listings).

Ferrule and shaft seal


Reactor-Ready stirrer guide - ferrule and shaft seal







RR121064 Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B24 10mm



















For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, the part number is:
  • RR121064: Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B24 10 mm
For Reactor-Ready Pilot, it is:
  • RR121138: Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B34 16 mm

Bearing seal


Reactor-Ready stirrer guide showing bearing seal







RR121063 Bearing Seal for Reactor-Ready




















For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, the part number is:
  • RR121063: Stirrer Guide Bearing Seal B24 10 mm
For Reactor-Ready Pilot, it is:
  • RR121136: Stirrer Guide Bearing Seal B34 16 mm

Metal cap pins​


Other stirrer guide spare parts, although ones that tend to be require replacing less frequently, are the the pins in the metal cap.

Reactor-Ready stirrer guide cap pins














For Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Reactor-Ready Pilot, the part number is:
  • RR121062: Stirrer Guide Cap S/S Pins (Pack of 3)
Please contact Technical Support for a guide explaining how to replace these.

You can also buy the whole metal cap with pins already in place.

For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, the part number is:
  • RR210061: Stirrer Guide B24 Metal Cap & Pins
For Reactor-Ready Pilot, it is:
  • RR210060: Stirrer Guide B34 Metal Cap & Pins
I have a basic (non-Reactor-Ready) PTFE stirrer guide. What's the part number for the blue nut at the top?
The blue plastic piece at the top of a basic PTFE stirrer guide (as pictured below) is called a lock nut.

Stirrer guide lock nut











This is available as part of a spare part set that also includes the blue ferrule and shaft seal inside the top of the stirrer guide, as pictured below.

Lock nut pack 2






Lock nut pack







There are different stirrer guide sizes and so lock nut spare part sets, so please contact us with your shaft diameter dimensions and we can advise the part number you need.

Note that in our Reactor-Ready range the blue plastic lock nut is not present due to the advanced drop-in coupling stirrer guide design.
Are the metal connectors on the Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator available spare parts?
Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator
















Yes, the metal fittings (quick connects) shown to the right in the images can be purchased as spare parts:
  • RR68008: Quick Release Threaded Chrome Fitting
  • RR68010: Quick Release Probe to Barb Chrome Fitting
Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator chrome fittings












(The black O-rings are not available separately.)
What material is the Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator O-ring? Can I buy a replacement?
The Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator red O-ring is silicone.

Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator base showing O-ring








It is available as a spare part:
  • RR68006: Silicone O-Ring
We could potentially supply this O-ring in an alternative material as custom if required; please contact Technical Support to discuss further.
What are the dimensions of the Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator?
The overall dimensions of the Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator are as follows (in mm):

Heat-On Heated Vacuum Desiccator dimensions
How can I prevent/stop an oil leak from my jacketed lab reactor manifold?

When you join oily parts together, e.g. an oily circulator hose to a manifold, we would expect there to be some slight dripping from the join initially on heating, as the oil on the threads is made more mobile and makes its way out.

Reactor-Ready Pilot manifolds
















With jacketed lab reactors in general, you may also experience slight oil leaking when initially heating/cooling the system, as parts expand and contract. Please carefully tighten up the leaking joint, dry it, and then try running the system again. You might have to do this a couple of times. You should find that the leakage tails off.

Please be aware

  • If you overtighten the manifold parts, you can damage the sealing faces and threads, make the parts leak and/or seize together, so be very careful to not do this.
  • Another possible cause of these parts leaking/jamming is cross threading.  If you find the parts are not screwing together easily, rather than forcing them, unscrew and then try screwing together again.
If your manifold adapters have become damaged by overtightening or cross threading, you can purchase replacements. The part numbers are as follows:

Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo

  • RR121123: Manifold Elbow Adapter 5/8" Female to M24x1.5 Male
  • RR121127: Manifold 1/2" Male to 5/8" Male Adapter

Reactor-Ready Pilot

  • RR210034: Manifold Elbow Adapter 1" Female to M30x1.5 Male
  • RR210036: Manifold 1" Male to 1" Male Adapter
Reactor-Ready Pilot manifolds (adapters) diagram 2

 







The seal where the straight adapter joins the manifold is also available if required.

Additional advice on screwing together an elbow adapter and straight adapter:
  • First, check that both sealing faces are clean and undamaged.
  • You can then screw them together by hand.
  • First put the two sealing faces together, then screw the threaded nut of the elbow adapter on over the top – rather than simply starting screwing the two adapters together, as then the sealing faces may not be in the correct position inside.
  • You may wish to tighten further very slightly by spanner if required (e.g. if a slight leak is observed after running the system).
  • There is likely to still be some thread in between the two adapters after you have reached the stopping point (where the two faces have come into contact and it’s no longer easy to turn), as shown below. This is normal. Do not apply excessive force to try to force the two parts further together, as discussed above.
  • PTFE (Teflon) tape shouldn’t be required, but some people do choose to use this in between joints.
Reactor-Ready Pilot manifold adapters
Can I purchase replacement gas outlets for my Carousel 6 Plus or 12 Plus?
You should avoid damage to the stainless steel gas outlets/inlets on the Carousel reflux head by ensuring you reflux effectively so that chemical vapours are retained in the flasks/tubes and do not pass up through the white PTFE caps to the gas outlets/inlets.  For guidance, please refer to the separate FAQs entry 'Can I use a Carousel 6 Plus or Carousel 12 Plus with corrosive chemicals?'

Carousel 12 Plus showing gas outlets


















Nonetheless, if the gas outlets do become corroded, they can be replaced:
  • RR91064: Spare Gas Outlet for Carousel 12 Plus + 6 Plus Including O-Rings (Pack of 6)
Gas outlet - Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus
 




The O-rings can also be purchased separately if required.  They are nitrile as standard, but are also available in Viton, so you can select which is most resistant to the chemicals you are using.
  • RR91060: Nitrile O-Rings 4 mm Gas Outlet – Bottom (Pack of 50)
  • RR91061: Nitrile O-Rings 3 mm Gas Outlet – Top (Pack of 50)
  • RR91062: Viton O-Rings 4 mm Gas Outlet – Bottom (Pack of 50)
  • RR91063: Viton O-Rings 3 mm Gas Outlet – Top (Pack of 50)
What is your jacketed lab reactor leak testing procedure?
Our Reactor-Ready range of jacketed lab reactors, together with Lara, have been specially designed to greatly minimise the risk of any leakage compared to other reaction systems.

This means that excellent vacuum levels can be obtained; moreover, the equipment lasts longer (due to reduced risk of chemical leakage and hence corrosion), health and safety is improved, and your valuable product is not lost.

You can check the sealing of your Reactor-Ready system, and investigate the source of any leaks or chemical vapours, by following the guidance in our technical bulletin 'TB 102 Reactor-Ready vacuum and pressure testing', available to download here.

Please also refer to the separate FAQ entry 'What vacuum level can be achieved in Radleys jacketed lab reactors?' for further details of factors that can influence the vacuum level you observe.
How can I work with smaller volumes in my Carousel 12 Plus? What are reduced volume inserts?
The standard Carousel 12 Plus tubes (part numbers RR91080 for a pack of 6 or RR91081 for a pack of 12) are 150 mm long with a 24 mm diameter, and are suitable for 5 ml to 20 ml sample volumes.

For 1 ml to 5 ml samples, we offer reduced volume tubes (part number RR91088 for a pack of 6). The lower part of these tubes tapers to 16 mm outer diameter.

Carousel 12 Plus standard and reduced volume tubes












Reduced volume tubes require an aluminium insert (RR91089 for pack of 6) to reduce the Carousel 12 Plus well size accordingly, to ensure a close fit and hence good heat transfer.

Carousel 12 Plus reduced volume inserts
How do I communicate with my Huber unit using an RS485 interface?
An RS485 interface is available for Pilot ONE Huber units if you purchase a Com.G@te, such as the one shown below.  (You can search these FAQs for 'Com.G@te' for further details.)

Huber internal Com.G@te HB31217


We can supply a cable for connecting to RS485 interface on the Com.G@te – part number HB6279. This has an open end, for wiring into your application.

Further wiring guidance

The pinout of the interface is as follows:
  • 6 - A with 120Ω-terminating resistor
  • 7 - A
  • 8 - B
Pins 7 (A) and 8 (B) must be used for connection with the RS485 network.

As there are only two wires, they are always connected A to A and B to B, independent of the number of RS485 units.

You should typically only use pin 7 and pin 8; pin 6 is not used for normal operation.  If the resistor should be activated for termination, you have to make an additional bridge between 6 and 7 at the corresponding unit.  Please take care that only one termination resistor is connected at each side of the RS485 bus.  This termination resistor is typically required in cases of high baud rates and large distances; please only use the baud rate of 9600 with the RS485 bus.

Communications


Huber RS485 only supports half-duplex mode.

If a single Huber unit is connected via RS485, the Huber will be able to understand any of the Huber command sets available – LAI, PP or PB commands, detailed here and here.

However, if multiple Huber units are connected via RS485, each unit must have its own unique address, and you have to address each unit separately.  This means you need to use the Huber LAI command set, as only LAI enables you to send address information within the command.  If the PLC/DCS etc. sends a command on the RS485 bus, every connected unit is listening, but only the addressed system can answer.

If you want to connect multiple Huber units to your PLC/DCS and it has Ethernet functionality, you may find that method of communication easier, as then you have the option of the PB or PP command sets, and furthermore you wouldn't need to purchase a Com.G@te for each Huber unit, as an Ethernet socket is included as standard on Pilot ONE controllers.
Can I buy a spare metal vessel support collar for my Reactor-Ready or Reactor-Ready Pilot?
A vessel support collar is required to mount a vessel within the quick-release clamp.

Reactor-Ready vessel collar - mounting vessel













Two vessel collars are supplied with each RR121000 Reactor-Ready Core or RR121300 Reactor-Ready Duo Core; one vessel collar is included in RR210000 Reactor-Ready Pilot Core.

You may wish to purchase additional metal support collars, particularly if you have lots of vessels (so you can keep one correctly positioned on each vessel).

For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, the part number is:
  • RR121048: Vessel Support Collar

RR121048 Reactor-Ready vessel support collar​​






For Reactor-Ready Pilot, the part number is:
  • RR210018: Pilot Vessel Support Collar
New Reactor-Ready Pilot vessel collar
Can I buy a replacement Reactor-Ready stirrer drop-in coupling?
Yes, the drop-in coupling is available as a spare part.

Reactor-Ready drop-in stirrer coupling




















For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, the part number is:
  • RR121065: Stirrer Drive Drop-in Coupling B24 10 mm
For the larger Reactor-Ready Pilot, the part number is:
  • RR121140: Stirrer Drive Drop-in Coupling B34 16 mm

Spare parts for the drop-in couplings are also available; please refer to the separate FAQ entry, '​How do I change the metal pins of the Reactor-Ready drop-in coupling or the stirrer guide cap?'

Can I buy a replacement PTFE stirrer guide for my jacketed lab reactor?
Yes, you can purchase stirrer guides (as pictured below).

Reactor-Ready PTFE stirrer guide

For Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and the current Lara (Lara Plus), the part number is:
  • RR121060: Stirrer Guide Assembly B24 10 mm
For the larger Reactor-Ready Pilot, it is:
  • RR121132: Stirrer Guide Assembly B34 16 mm
For Lara Classic (serial number CLR-​1001 to CLR-1060), the PTFE stirrer guide (the replacement to the old metal/glass stirrer guide) is:
  • LR171150: Lara Classic Stirrer Guide (s/n CLR1001-60)
For other types of jacketed lab reactors (traditional or custom), please contact us to discuss.​

Spare parts for these stirrer guides are also available. You can refer to the separate FAQ entry, 'What spare parts are available for my Reactor-Ready or Reactor-Ready Pilot stirrer guide?'
Can I replace the PTFE support collar for the O-ring between my jacketed lab reactor vessel and lid?
Reactor-Ready vessel-lid PTFE collar and O-ring

Yes, you can purchase replacement PTFE collars for the lid/vessel O-ring.

Reactor-Ready Pilot DN100 vessel O-ring and PTFE support collar







For Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara, the part number is:
  • RR121095: PTFE Support Collar for FEP O-Ring - 100 mm
For the larger Reactor-Ready Pilot, it is:
  • RR210024: PTFE Support Collar for FEP O-Ring - 200 mm
Do you still supply old-style Tornado Classic (Carousel 6 Classic) wide neck glassware?
Our original Tornado (Carousel 6) wide neck design was a large ground glass joint as follows:

Old-style Tornado Classic (Carousel 6 Classic) wide neck glassware





















The part number for the reflux tube was RR99160, and there were various compatible flasks to choose from.

Glassware with this specific joint has been discontinued, as we redesigned our Tornado / Carousel 6 wide neck joint to an improved flat flange design as shown below:

Current Tornado (Carousel 6) wide neck glassware






























We do still offer the range of wide neck glassware (reflux tubes and the different flask volumes/designs) for the Tornado Classic (and Carousel 6 Classic), but with the new flat flange wide neck design.

Please be aware that you cannot fit new flat flange reflux tubes onto old glass joint flasks or vice versa, so you will need to order both new reflux tubes and new flasks.

The flat flange Classic wide neck reflux tube (including coupling) is part number RR99946; please contact us to discuss flask part numbers.  Please note it's important to specify that you have Classic equipment, as Classic reflux tubes have a different thread at the top (where the Tornado or Carousel caps screw on) than the current Plus equipment, as pictured below.

Carousel Classic v. Plus thread
 
Is Findenser compatible with US A joints?
While our standard Findensers have B joints, these have the same key diameters and taper as American A joints (it’s just that the A joints are slightly longer), so they are compatible.

We have sold many Findensers in the US without issue, such as described in this case study.

For more information on joint sizes, please see the FAQs entry, 'What are B joints (B29, B24, B19 and B14 etc.)?'
Is Findenser suitable for use under pressure?
Pressure is not normally applicable to Findenser; it is typically used open to atmosphere at the top.

If you would like to seal off Findenser (e.g. you want to stop air getting in and reacting with your chemicals), then you should use an oil bubbler or a chemistry balloon to prevent a build-up of pressure.

Please be advised that the maximum pressure of all the glassware we manufacture is 0.5 bar above atmospheric pressure (also known as 0.5 barg, or 1.5 absolute pressure) - it should not be subjected to any significant pressure.
What is the footprint of Reactor-Ready Pilot?
The Reactor-Ready Pilot framework (including drip tray) is 540 mm wide and 650 mm deep.

The manifolds and vessel-to-manifold hoses will increase the width (by approximately 400 mm).

If you mount receiver flasks (optional accessories) on the frame, the overall system will be about 200 mm wider (based on 5 L receiver flasks).
What is the footprint of Reactor-Ready Duo?
The Reactor-Ready Duo framework (including drip tray) is 600 mm wide and 485 mm deep.

When you include the vessel-to-manifold hoses, the overall footprint will be larger.  The width will increase, to up to approximately 1200 mm.
What is the footprint of Reactor-Ready?
The Reactor-Ready framework (including drip tray) is 460 mm wide and 570 mm deep.

When you include the manifolds and vessel-to-manifold hoses, the overall footprint will be larger.  The width will increase to approximately 700 mm.
What is the difference between a Pt100 and a Pt1000?
Pt100s and Pt1000s are two types of temperature probes (temperature sensors).

They are both platinum resistance thermometers (hence the 'Pt'), as opposed to thermocouples.

The main difference between Pt100s and Pt1000s in general is the electrical resistance at 0⁰C, which is the number in the name: a Pt100 is 100Ω at 0⁰C and a Pt1000 is 1000Ω at ⁰C.  This makes Pt1000s more accurate for small temperature changes as they would result in larger changes in resistance when compared to Pt100s.  
 
In the context of standard Radleys equipment, Pt100s are the external temperature probes you plug into circulators (such as a Huber Unistat), typically to measure the temperature of the contents of a reaction vessel (e.g. in Reactor-Ready).  Our jacketed lab reactor vessel kits all contain a Pt100 of an appropriate length.  These Pt100 probes are PTFE-encapsulated, for excellent chemical resistance.  They use a LEMO connection as shown below.

Huber, LEMO socket and Reactor-Ready Pt100













Again considering typical Radleys products, Pt1000s are the external temperature probes you can plug into a hotplate, and then insert into a probe hole in a Heat-On, Carousel base or StarFish Mono/PolyBlock, or alternatively into a flask.  All our current stirring hotplates are compatible with a Pt1000.  The standard Pt1000 material is stainless steel, but glass-coated sensors are also available for if the Pt1000 will come into contact with chemicals that corrode stainless steel.

Carousel Stirring Hotplate with Pt1000
Where can I find my jacketed vessel's serial number?
We may ask you to tell us the serial number of your jacketed glass vessel.  This enables us to look up the production records of your vessel, including its specifications and when it was manufactured.

You should be able to find the serial number printed on the vessel in between in the sidearms.  It will consist of a letter or a symbol, followed by a three-digit number.  An example is shown below.

Vessel serial number
Where can I find my Huber unit's serial number?
So we can identify exactly which Huber model you have (e.g. since there have been different versions over the years), we often ask for the unit's serial number.

This should be stated on a silver sticker on the unit, such as the one below:

Huber serial number sticker











The number after the '/' indicates the year of manufacture.
I have a Huber immersion cooler and the display is reading error F1-. How can I fix it?
The immersion cooler models with an MPC control panel (shown below) require an external Pt100 temperature probe to operate.

Huber immersion cooler MPC controller, F1 error and Pt100 socket












These models are supplied with a Pt100, so plug this in to the socket (below the display), and the error message should stop.
I have lost a black plastic piece from my Reactor-Ready I-beam. Can I buy a spare?
Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo stirrer rod reducing spacer
 












The image above shows the tops of the Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo frameworks.

The hole with a black border is where you insert an overhead stirrer support rod.  The black 'liner' of this hole is two adapters (there is one half on each side) you can remove to insert larger diameter support rods.

If you misplace one of these black pieces, you can purchase a replacement:
RR121041: I-Beam Stirrer Rod Reducing Spacer

Note that this is a pack of 1 (one half, for one side of the metal I-beam).
My overhead stirrer has a large diameter support rod. How can I fit it in the Reactor-Ready framework?
Reactor-Ready I-beam (stirrer support I-brace) 3










When setting up a Reactor-Ready system, you insert the overhead stirrer motor's support rod into the hole in the I-beam (also called the stirrer support I-brace).

Reactor-Ready I-beam (stirrer support I-brace)










If you cannot fit your overhead stirrer rod into the hole, you should remove the black plastic parts that are supplied inserted in the hole (one half on each side - gently prise out using a suitable implement), to increase the hole diameter.  With the black pieces in place, stirrer rods of up to 13.5 mm diameter can be accommodated; removal allows stirrer rods of up to 16.5 mm to be inserted.

Reactor-Ready I-beam (stirrer support I-brace) 2











You can then use the knob on the I-beam above the hole to tighten the screw and secure the overhead stirrer's support rod in place.

The procedure is the same for Reactor-Ready Duo.
What are the well dimensions of StarFish MonoBlocks and PolyBlocks for tubes and vials?
We offer the following StarFish MonoBlocks and PolyBlocks for tubes and vials:

StarFish well dimensions - MonoBlocks and PolyBlocks for tubes and vials







































In addition, we offer RR95152: MonoBlock for 16 x 28 mm Vials and RR95252: PolyBlock for 3 x 28 mm Vials, both of which have a well depth of 27 mm.
Are the feet of the base of the Reactor-Ready stand available as spare parts?
Yes, you can purchase spare base feet for the Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo framework if required.

The part number is RR121011 for one foot.  The nitrile foot pads should be purchased separately; they are part number RR121012 for a pack of 5.

Reactor-Ready base with feet
How many Heat-On inserts can I fit together in a Multi-Well Holder?
You can fit one of the largest insert, for 150 ml round bottom flasks, into the Multi-Well Holder.
Heat-On Multi-Well Holder + 150 ml insert

For all other inserts (smaller flask volumes and tubes), you can fit two inserts alongside each other in the Multi-Well Holder.

Heat-On Multi-Well + 2 inserts
Which accessories are included with my Huber unit?
Check the technical data sheet for the Huber model.

This can be downloaded from the Huber website - search for your model to go to its web page, then click on the 'Data sheet' hyperlink.

Scroll down to the 'Accessories and periphery' section near the bottom.  The parts labelled with a * symbol are included with the unit as standard.
Can I use water as thermal fluid in my circulator?
If you have a bath unit or a chiller (such as a Minichiller), then you can potentially use water as thermal fluid.

Note that usually a mixture of water and ethylene glycol is used rather than just water, to widen the temperature range – adding glycol reduces the freezing point.  (Search these FAQs for 'glycol' to find the entry 'Do I dilute ethylene glycol for use in a circulator? By how much?' for further details.)

Please be advised that if you have a Huber Unistat, you should not use water or water-glycol as thermal fluid - select a suitable silicone oil for the temperature range instead.
I want to connect a chiller to a condenser. What tubing should I use?

You do not need the Huber metal-inner or PTFE-inner insulated hoses to connect chillers to cool condensers with water/glycol.

There are multiple types of tubing that can be used, depending on the specific application/apparatus.

For StarFish, we offer RR95540: Tubing for Manifold inlets 15 m x 8 mm for between the chiller and a water manifold, and then RR95535: Tubing for Manifold outlets 15 m x 6.4 mm for connecting a water manifold to the condensers.

Huber Unichiller and StarFish condensers





















An example jacketed lab reactor application would be connecting a Huber Minichiller to RR139009: Condenser Jacket Coil Rodaviss B29 + GL14 + fittings.  For this, you could use RR95540 as described above, together with the 8 mm diameter (NW 8) hose barb that comes with the Minichiller.

The Heidolph 591-35000-00: Tube Set for Hei-VAP also contains water tubing appropriate for many applications.  Of course, it is suitable for use with Heidolph Hei-VAP rotary evaporators, but it is compatible with NW 8 hose barbs and GL14 fittings, so can additionally be used with jacketed lab reactors.

Some customers source their own tubing for connecting chillers to condensers.

Please note, it is vital to secure condenser tubing using a suitable hose clip.

If you are running a condenser at low temperatures, you may want to insulate your tubing to help reduce condensation.  We offer Huber tubing insulation for this purpose: 

  • HB6083: Tubing Insulation 13 mm ID x 7 mm Thick NW 8
  • HB6082: Tubing Insulation 17 mm ID x 7 mm Thick NW 12
  • I'm in the middle of a ramp step in AVA and the device has unexpectedly stopped ramping. Why?
    This indicates that the experiment is paused.

    It's possible that another device, in a step set to end during the ramp, is waiting for end conditions to be met before it can finish and move on to the next step, as this would pause the Schedule.  This is shown on the right hand side of the example below.

    AVA - plateau during ramp - waiting for end conditions











































    Here, the circulator cannot heat fast enough to reach its end setpoint in the specified time.  As the default end conditions for a circulator step are for both duration and setpoint to be achieved, the step cannot immediately move on.  Meanwhile, the overhead stirrer, which is ramping, is paused at its current stirring speed.

    Please search these FAQs for the key words 'end conditions' and 'pause' for related entries with further details.
    I'm running a Schedule in AVA, but something unexpected happens, e.g. the temperature suddenly drops. What could be the cause?

    It's probable that there is a very short step in your Schedule that is too small for you to see at your current zoom level.  

    Try zooming in on the Schedule (using the scroll bar at the bottom right of the AVA window) to see if there are any small steps (e.g. for a different temperature) that explain your observation.  You can also create the Rich Text Format report of your experiment file (see FAQs for further details) and review the recipe (which lists all steps in the Schedule, no matter now small) and the event log (what actually occurred in practice).

    You may have accidentally inserted such tiny steps into the Schedule if you made quick changes manually in the Apparatus window while AVA was running in Schedule mode.  Any changes you make in Apparatus are recorded and then will be present when you run the Schedule next time, as part of AVA's 'track and repeat' functionality.

    However, note that while you can make instant changes in the Apparatus window, when experiments are later being played in the Schedule they can have end conditions as standard, which have to be fulfilled in order for AVA to move on to the next step.  For example, you may briefly change the circulator temperature setpoint in the Apparatus window and quickly change it back, but when the Schedule with new added temperature control step is replayed, its default settings will require that now AVA waits for the specified temperature to be achieved before the step moves on.

    AVA - small temperature control step with end conditions























    To prevent this issue:

    • Ensure all users are aware that making changes in the Apparatus window can change the Schedule in this way. When running a Schedule, they should avoid making changes in the Apparatus window.
    • Before you run an experiment, we advise that you generate the Rich Text Format report, and carefully review the recipe line by line to identify any steps that should not be there.
    • You can then go to the AVA Schedule window and delete/edit any incorrect steps.
    • Another suggestion would be to run the experiment in demo mode to check it before running it with actual chemistry.
    How does the Lara drain-down button work?
    The Lara drain-down button facilitates the draining of thermal fluid back into the circulator.

    When the button is depressed, air is allowed to enter the circulator system through a gold-coloured filter situated above the button. This makes the draining process much faster.

    Lara drain-down button




















    You would first need to ensure that the circulator has enough space in its expansion tank to accept the oil.  (An additional external expansion tank can be added to a Huber if required.)

    The circulator would have to be positioned below the Lara, as gravity is used for drain-down.

    To drain the Lara vessel jacket:
  • Switch off the circulator.
  • Press the 'drain' button on the left hand side of the triangular Lara framework.  
  • The button must remain depressed to completely drain the jacket.
  • How can I protect my fluoropolymer-coated Heat-On from damage?
    The fluoropolymer coating is our most popular format of Heat-On.  It offers additional chemical resistance compared to the anodised aluminium finish.

    However, care should still be taken to prolong the life of your polymer-coated Heat-On.
    The coating may be damaged by the factors listed below.  For some applications, the anodised Heat-On may therefore be more suitable.

    Chemicals


    The fluoropolymer coating has excellent chemical resistance, but it can be damaged through exposure to some chemicals, particularly high concentrations of corrosive chemicals, or over extended periods of time, or if heated.

    It is important to clean off any chemical spills as soon as possible.  Consider also any chemicals that could be on your glassware - glassware should be kept clean if using with Heat-On.

    Physical abrasion


    Rubbing, scratching, scraping, wearing etc. could all damage the coating.

    Possible causes of this are use of glassware with a rough surface (scratched or uneven etc.), chemical residue / grit between the glassware and the Heat-On, use of a magnetic stirring bar directly in the Heat-On, or placing other equipment inside the Heat-On (e.g. during storage).

    High temperatures


    Our general advice is that Heat-On can be used up to 200°C without damage to the block, with temperatures up to 260°C possible but with a risk of minor surface degradation.

    For the polymer-coated blocks, above 200°C the coating may be damaged by prolonged high temperatures. Very high temperatures are more likely to lead to more damage.  If the coating has already been weakened by chemical exposure and/or physical abrasion, it is likely to be more sensitive to temperature. 

    (For further details, you can refer to the FAQ entry, 'What is the maximum temperature of Heat-On?')
    What cable do I need to connect my Huber unit to a Data Hub and AVA software?
    You will need an RS232 cable to connect your Huber unit to the Data Hub and so AVA.

    There are different types of RS232 cable, and it's important that you select the correct one.

    For new Huber Unistats with Pilot ONE controller, you will need part number HB55018. This has a 15-pin end for connecting to the Huber, and a 9-pin end for connecting to the Data Hub.

    For more basic or older Huber models, the cable is usually part number HB6146, which is 9 pin at both ends. However, please contact us with the model and serial number of your unit, so we can confirm.
    How can I position my PTFE Pt100 deep in the vessel without it touching the stirrer shaft?
    For jacketed lab reactors with angled lid sockets (such as Reactor-Ready), you should bend the PTFE Pt100 temperature probe so that it doesn’t come into contact with the stirrer shaft and the tip is in the optimum position, as shown below.

    Reactor-Ready bent Pt100































    The probe can be bent by up to 45° without issue.

    Please make sure the section of the Pt100 secured in the adapter (in the socket) is straight not bent, to ensure a good seal.
    Can you supply PTFE lids for my jacketed lab reactor?
    Although glass lids are standard, we do offer PTFE lids as alternatives - DN100 size for Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, and DN200 for Reactor-Ready Pilot.

    The lids are available both with standard joints in place (which are removable and can be changed), and without standard joints (just screw ports, for you to add the Rodaviss sockets you choose).

    DN100 lids for Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo

    • With joints – RR136100: DN100 PTFE 5 Neck Lid 1 x B19, 2 x B24, 1 x B29, 1 x B34 and 2 Blanked Ports

    • DN100 PTFE lid with joints for Reactor-Ready









    • Without joints – RR136110: DN100 PTFE Lid with 7 Threaded Ports – 2 x ¼" NPT, 5 x ¾" NPT
    DN100 PTFE lid without joints for Reactor-Ready







    ​​DN200 lids for Reactor-Ready Pilot

    • With joints – RR136200: DN200 PTFE 8 Neck Lid 1 x B19, 1 x B24, 2 x B29, 3 x B34, 1 x B45

    • DN200 PTFE lid with joints for Reactor-Ready Pilot








    • Without joints – RR136210: DN200 PTFE Lid with 8 Threaded Ports – 2 x ¾" NPT, 1 x 1" NPT, 5 x 1½” NPT
    DN200 PTFE lid without joints for Reactor-Ready Pilot







    ​​A wide range of PTFE Rodaviss sockets, PTFE compression fittings and PTFE blanking plugs are available for these lids; please contact us for further details.

    Advantages of PTFE lids include:
    • Changeable joints allow for maximum flexibility - change the PTFE joint to suit your set-up.
    • Enables more joints in a smaller space.
    • More suitable for PAT and test probes than equivalent glass lids.
    • More robust and less likely to break than glass.
    • Flatter lid – less dead space at the top of vessel.
    Can I buy the red open screw caps and white split rings for jacketed vessel sidearms?
    All Reactor-Ready (including Duo), Reactor-Ready Pilot and new Lara vessels are supplied with red screw caps and white split rings (sidearm couplings) on the vessel sidearms.  These are used to connect to the vessel-to-manifold hoses.

    Locking cap and locking ring for Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Pilot and Lara











    They are not common consumables, but are available as spares if required.

    If you have old Lara Classic vessels that did not include these parts, you will need them if you want to connect the old vessels to new Lara vessel-to-manifold hoses.

    The part numbers are:

    Red cap

    • For Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara – RR166122: Locking Cap for Quick Release Hose Coupling - B29 (Pack of 1)
    • For Reactor-Ready Pilot – RR210054: Locking Cap for Quick Release Hose Coupling - B34 (Pack of 1)

      ​Locking cap for Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Pilot and Lara








    White ring​

    • For Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara – RR166120: Locking Ring for Quick Release Hose Coupling - B29 (Pack of 1)
    • For Reactor-Ready Pilot – RR210052: Locking Ring for Quick Release Hose Coupling - B34 (Pack of 1)
    Locking ring for Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Pilot and Lara
    What causes static? How can it be minimised?
    Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charge that builds up in/on a material.  It may be generated in a circulating fluid system.

    This is not a fault with the equipment, but an unfortunate and accepted occasional side effect of the method in general.  There are thousands of reaction systems in the field that are pumping oil around a reactor, and only a small number have static issues.

    Possible causes of static

    • Generally, oil-based thermal fluids (heat transfer fluids) are not good conductors of electricity, and can therefore develop static charge. This is because, whilst in use, they are creating constant friction with the hoses, vessel jacket and the inside of the circulator (thermoregulator).  Some thermal fluids are more prone to static than others.
    • In some cases, the friction generated from the stirrer shaft turning in the vessel contents can also cause static, although this depends on the particular material being stirred.
    • Site and environmental factors, such as power supply wiring, can also cause static.

    Possible solutions

    If you do experience signs of static build-up within your system (such as erratic temperature readings), we would strongly recommend that this is discussed and reviewed with your own on-site process safety advisers, to check the earthing potential of nearby power supplies, and ensure that safe engineering practices are used to deal with static.

    The two most popular methods for reducing or eliminating the risk of static build-up in a system are as follows; in most cases it is recommended to adopt both:
    • The use of earthing lines, to connect all of the system components (vessel, framework, circulator etc.) to an earth line. This is often the accepted practice in process and plant installations.
    • Adding an anti-static additive to the thermal fluid, which helps make the thermal fluid a better electrical conductor, and dissipates build-up of electrostatic charge. It is important to ensure that the additive is compatible with the thermal fluid in use and that its concentration is maintained, even after thermal fluid changes.
    How can I calibrate my Huber unit?
    You can check the accuracy of a temperature sensor by placing a calibrated reference temperature sensor (not supplied by Huber/Radleys) close to the sensor in question, and noting the readings at your desired temperatures.

    If you would like to calibrate an external temperature sensor (a Pt100 you have purchased as an optional accessory, to plug into the Huber (via the LEMO socket) and position in your application (e.g. jacketed lab reactor)), you can simply place your calibrated reference temperature sensor next to the external Pt100 in the application.

    Huber units contain an internal temperature sensor, which is used to measure the temperature of the thermal fluid flowing out of the Huber unit to the external application.  Please note that Huber calibrate the temperature sensors at their factory, and so calibration of new units by customers is not required.  Nonetheless, if you would like to calibrate the internal temperature sensor, to position your reference temperature sensor next to it, you would need to purchase a calibration bend.

    Huber calibration bend





    The calibration bend would be mounted on the Huber outlet, and has a sensor pocket for inserting the reference sensor.  There are different types of calibration bends, for different sized Huber fittings and sensor diameters.  (It is not possible to remove the internal sensor from the Huber unit to calibrate it.)

    If your Huber unit has a Pilot ONE controller, you can then offset the current temperature reading to match the reference temperature.  Navigate to Menu → System Settings → Sensor Adjustment.

    With Professional or Exclusive levels (E-grades) of the Pilot ONE software, you can calibrate 5 points (5 different temperatures); with the Basic software, a 2-point calibration is possible.
    Which hoses do you recommend to connect a circulator to a jacketed vessel?

    If you are connecting a Huber Unistat or bath unit to a jacketed lab reactor such as Reactor-Ready, for almost all applications we recommend the insulated Huber hoses.

    Huber insulated hose




    For most hose sizes, you can choose between:

    • Metal-inner hoses
    • PTFE-inner hoses

    In terms of which hose size (M16, M24 or M30), consider the hose connections on the Huber unit and on the reactor and select a hose of the same size.  For example, Reactor-Ready is M24.  If you use it with a Unistat 405, this is also M24, so you would use M24 hoses.  If you chose a Ministat 230, this is M16, so you would use M16 or M24 hoses with Reactor-Ready, with a size adapter where the size changes (described in further detail in a separate FAQ entry - search for 'size adapter').

    Determine the length of hoses you require, by considering where the Huber unit will be located relative to the jacketed lab reactor.

    I have multiple (parallel) reactions in AVA. How do I start them all at the same time?
    If you have multiple, parallel reactions set up in AVA (in one AVA software instance/window), you can view a summary of all the reactions together in the 'Overview’ tab (which is between the ‘Reporting’ and ‘Reaction 1’ tabs).

    In the Schedule section of the ‘Overview’ tab, there is a play (triangle) button to start all reactions, and a stop (square) button to stop all reactions.

    AVA start all reactions at same time



















































    For further details, please refer to the AVA help pages (which are accessed via the AVA software itself, a demo version of which can be downloaded for free from our website here).
    What is 'flashing'? How do I 'flash' a Pilot ONE controller? How do I update Pilot ONE firmware?
    The process to update the firmware of a Huber Pilot ONE controller is called flashing.

    To do this, download the Huber Pilot ONE Flasher software from the Huber website

    The download will contain the manual with instructions on how to download the latest firmware from the internet and transfer it to the Pilot ONE controller; this can also be viewed online.
    When should I use an inert gas (nitrogen) blanket with a Huber Unistat?
    When using the thermal fluid (oil) DW-Therm, which is exclusively for use with Unistats, inert gas must be used when working above 170°C.

    One option for applying the nitrogen blanket is to purchase a sealing kit (part number HB9738 for Petite Fleur or Grande Fleur, or HB9402 for other Unistats).  If you use a sealing kit, you should limit the pressure (in the expansion vessel) to maximum 0.3 bar.

    An alternative option, which is generally recommended, is the Huber breather controller, HB9771.  The breather controller HB9771 includes a sealing kit plus enables you to control the pressure.
    How much space (clearance) do I need around a Huber unit?
    It is best to have as much space around the Huber unit as possible.

    However, if you need to position it a small space, please ensure there is sufficient clearance to the ceiling and walls where the machine is sited; the guidelines are as follows:

    Air-cooled models

    These transfer all the heat energy taken from the temperature-controlled application into the environment.  This warm exhaust air must be able to rise without hindrance.  Fresh cool air must also be able to enter the unit.

    You should leave at least 20 cm space around the air-cooled Huber unit, and at least 70 cm between the back of the unit and any obstruction.

    Water-cooled models

    There should be at least 10 cm space around the unit.
    When should I use an inert gas (nitrogen) blanket with a Huber bath unit?
    In open bath circulators, oil (thermal fluid) is exposed to the atmosphere.

    At high temperatures, the oil can be degraded, and there is also a small risk it can become gel like.

    For the common Huber silicone oils, we recommend the use of inert gas (a nitrogen blanket), particularly if you will be working at temperatures over 150°C, to prolong the lifetime of the oil.

    We can supply bath covers with fittings (an inlet and an outlet) for inert gas as custom; please contact us for further details.
    How do I change the metal pins of the Reactor-Ready drop-in coupling or the stirrer guide cap?

    The three coupling pins on each of the stirrer drive drop-in coupling and the stirrer guide should be regularly inspected.  These pins can wear over time and require periodic replacement.

    Reactor-Ready drop-in coupling
















    For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, the relevant part numbers are:

    • RR121066: Stirrer Drive Drop-in Coupling S/S Pins (Pack of 3)
    • RR121067: Stirrer Drive Drop-in Coupling Dowel Pin (Pack of 1)
    • RR121068: Stirrer Drive Drop-in Coupling Snap Ring B24 10 mm (Pack of 1)

    • RR121062: Stirrer Guide Cap S/S Pins (Pack of 3)
    • RR121099: Stirrer Guide Metal Cap Grub Screw (Pack of 1)

    We can send you a guide explaining how to change the pins; please contact Technical Support.

    N.B. For Reactor-Ready Pilot, instead of RR121068 you will need RR121142: Stirrer Drive Drop-in Coupling Snap Ring B34 16 mm.
    What is the flow rate range of your peristaltic pump (for AVA)?

    For use with AVA Software, we sell:

    • RR20500: Gravimetric Additions Module, which contains 
    • RR20400: Peristaltic Pump 400 rpm 2000 ml/min, together with a balance and accessories.

    The speed range of the RR20400 peristaltic pump is 3 rpm to 400 rpm.  The flow rate is affected by on the diameter of the tubing.

    The standard tubing included in RR20500 is:

    • (RR20407: Marprene Tubing 1.6 mm Bore 1.6 mm Wall 5 m) corresponds to a flow rate (using water at 20°C) of 0.81-110 ml/min.

    If you need a lower flow rate, we can supply (as custom) alternative tubing with a smaller bore to use with the peristaltic pump.  0.8 mm bore gives a flow rate of 0.21-28 ml/min; 0.5 m bore corresponds to the range 0.09-12 ml/min.

    If you need a higher flow rate, we can supply custom tubing with a larger bore.  The maximum flow rate of 2000 ml/min corresponds to tubing with a 8.0 mm bore.

    What is the maximum volume of your syringe pump (for AVA)?
    For use with AVA Software, we sell:
    • RR20504: Syringe Pump Additions Module which contains -
    • RR20418: Single Syringe Pump, plus accessories.
    This syringe pump can accept up to a full 60 ml syringe, or, if this is not large enough, a 140 ml syringe partially filled (around 120-125 ml).
    In AVA, what does 'range' mean for an overhead stirrer motor?
    'Range' refers to the speed range (gear) of the overhead stirrer.  Please refer to your overhead stirrer instruction manual for further details about gearing and speed ranges.

    When you add an overhead stirrer in the Apparatus window in AVA, its properties box will appear and at the bottom of the 'Device Limits and Settings' section is the range.

    In AVA, the range is set to 1 as default, but you can change it to 0.  '0' selects stirring speed range 1 and entering '1' selects stirrer range 2.

    AVA tells the stirrer which gear to use, and thus alters its stirring speed range accordingly.

    You should manually configure the maximum and minimum speed limit values according to which range setting you select for your stirrer.
    In AVA, when a pause step is occurring, what does the equipment do?

    An experiment can be paused in AVA either when you press the pause button, or the experiment reaches a pause command you have added to a step in the Schedule.

    When an experiment is paused, the effect on devices is as follows:

    • Peristaltic pump (either standalone or as part of an addition/pH step) or syringe pump: the pump stops during the pause.
    • All other controlled devices hold the current setpoint during the pause.  If the device is in the process of ramping the setpoint when the pause occurs, then during the pause it maintains the setpoint it had got to at that point.  For example, if a stirrer is being ramped from 60 rpm to 120 rpm and the step is paused whilst stirring at 85 rpm, it continues to stir at 85 rpm for the duration of the pause, before resuming the ramping again after the pause.
    What are 90° bends? Why are they beneficial?

    90° bends (90 degree bends) are also known as right angle adapters or elbow adapters.

    Huber 90 degree bend




    We recommend them for use with circulators (typically Huber units), one for each hose.  They are inserted between the hose and its respective hose connection on the circulator.

    Highly insulated circulator hoses are not very flexible, and Huber hose connections point straight out of the side or back of the unit.  Depending on where you want to locate the circulator relative to your reaction system, including the 90° bends can make it easier to position the hoses in the appropriate direction.

    Choose 90° bends that are the same size as your circulator hose (pump) connections. The part numbers are:

    • HB6195: M16/1 90deg Adapter
    • HB9256: M24/1.5 90deg Adapter 
    • HB6461: M30/1.5 90deg Adapter
    • HB6699: M38/1.5 90deg Adapter

    On Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Reactor-Ready Pilot, the manifolds you connect the circulator hoses to already have 90° bends as standard, so you do not need to purchase them for the reactor end.

    What do Huber oil names mean, e.g. SilOil M40.165/220.10?

    SilOil is short for silicone oil.

    The first part of the code is the lower temperature limit (°C) of the oil.  This is the temperature of the fluid where the viscosity has reached 50 centistokes (cSt; equivalent to mm2/s); cooler than this and the oil would be too viscous to pump.  The 'M' or 'P' before the number refer to minus or plus respectively.

    The second part of the code (in between two full stops) is the higher temperature limit (°C) of the oil. If there are two figures separated by a '/', the first corresponds to the maximum in an open bath unit (e.g. Ministat) and the second is the maximum in a Unistat. The maximum recommended temperature for a bath unit is below the oil's flash point, to ensure safety. Unistats are hermetically sealed, so can be used at slightly higher temperatures.

    The final part of the code is the viscosity at 25°C (around room temperature) in centistokes, cSt (i.e. mm2s).  The higher the number, the higher the viscosity.

    I need to replace the blue conical part inside the stirrer guide. What's the part number?


    Reactor-Ready stirrer guide - blue ferrule







    Reactor-Ready stirrer guide - blue ferrule and shaft seal

    The blue conical stirrer grip inside the Reactor-Ready and Lara stirrer guide, which we refer to as a ferrule, is included in the following spare part pack:

    • RR121064: Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B24 10 mm

    RR121064 Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B24 10mm



















    As you can see, RR121064 includes the shaft seal (white washer with black O-ring) that sits with the blue ferrule inside the stirrer guide.

    It is normal for these parts to become worn/deformed with use, so it's important to regularly check them and replace them if there's any sign of deterioration.

    RR121064 is included in the RR121150: Reactor-Ready Maintenance Kit.  (For more information, please refer to the separate FAQ entry 'How can I maintain the performance of my jacketed lab reactor? What are maintenance kits?'.)

    For the larger Reactor-Ready Pilot stirrer guides, the equivalent part numbers are:

    • RR121138: Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B34 16 mm
    • RR210100: Reactor-Ready Pilot Maintenance Kit
    How do I decide between air-cooled and water-cooled Huber circulators?
    Most Huber units are available in either air-cooled or water-cooled versions.

    Water cooling and air cooling is referring to heat removed from the Huber unit itself (cooling of the condenser in its refrigeration system, after it has removed heat from your application).  It does not refer to how the Huber unit cools your application - e.g. a water-cooled Unistat would still circulate oil, not water, around a vessel's jacket.
     
    For relatively small (low to moderate cooling power) models, the air-cooled versions are recommended.  For some large units (very high cooling power), only water cooling is available.  If you are using a chiller to recirculate cooling water to minimise water consumption, you certainly should use an air-cooled rather than a water-cooled unit.

    Air-cooled circulators

    • Use internal fans to pull cool air in for cooling.
    • Warm air is ejected into the lab.
    • This warm exhaust air must be able to rise without hindrance. Fresh air must also be able to enter the machine.  You must ensure there is sufficient space around the unit - more clearance is needed than for water-cooled units.
    • If grills get dusty or blocked, your efficiency will drop off and the system may cut out.
    • Large units can be noisy.
    • For high cooling power units where there is still a choice available between air-cooled and water-cooled, the air-cooled units can be larger (have bigger dimensions).

    Water-cooled circulators

    • Water-cooled Hubers are denoted by a 'w' at the end of their model name, e.g. Unistat 405w.
    • Water circulates past the circulator's condenser to remove the heat.
    • The water supply must be of a suitable pressure, temperature and purity.
    • The circulator must have access to a drain for waste hot water to be disposed of (unless you are using your own looped chilled water supply).
    • Water-cooled models are quieter than air-cooled.
    How can I choose between Unistats and open bath circulators?
    Unistats are technologically advanced circulators from Huber.  Open bath units are a more traditional design.

    Generally, Unistats are recommended for more demanding reactor applications (e.g. rapid cooling/heating required, large exothermic reaction to control, large vessel volume, or very low/high temperatures required), while bath units are a lower cost alternative for less demanding reactor applications.  (Of course, if you want to put objects into a bath rather than temperature control a jacketed reactor, you will need a bath unit!)

    Some key differences between the Unistats and baths are as follows:

    Huber Unistats

    • Small internal volume - faster temperature change possible, as less oil in the circulator to heat/cool.
    • Plate heat exchangers compared to coil heat exchangers - more efficient heat transfer, so again, faster heating/cooling.
    • Thermal fluid (oil) isn't exposed to air at very high or low temperatures - longer lifetime of oil, and can use it at a wider temperature range than in open baths.
    • Integrated expansion tank to allow for oil expansion under heating and contraction under cooling.  Additional expansion tank can be added for further space for drain-down of a reactor.
    • Have Pilot ONE controllers with the highest level (E-grade) of software - 'Professional'.
    • Cannot use water-glycol as thermal fluid (only oil).
    • Higher cost.

    Open baths

    • Slower heating/cooling per kW as larger internal volume so more oil to be heated/cooled (the temperature change you want in the vessel's jacket must take place for the oil in the bath too) and coil heat exchanger used rather than plate heat exchanger.
    • The bath is open to atmosphere (oxygen and water vapour).  At high temperatures, oil (if used as thermal fluid) can be degraded through its reaction with the air, and vapours are given off (which smell).  At low temperatures, moisture absorbed into the thermal fluid means ice can form on the refrigerator coil and ice crystals can form in the fluid.
    • Lower maximum temperature of oils - should not be used above flash point.
    • No expansion tank; take care not to overflow bath.
    • Huber open baths may have the basic MPC controller.  Huber bath units with a Pilot ONE controller have the lowest level (E-grade) of software as standard - 'Basic'.
    • Can use water-glycol as thermal fluid, as an alternative to oil.
    • Lower cost.
    • N.B. Some issues can be minimised and performance improved by purchasing a displacement insert and/or a software upgrade - please see separate FAQ entries for more information.  Please note, these options are not available for all models.
    How can I determine the best Hei-TORQUE model for me?

    With a few simple questions, you can identify which of the new Heidolph Hei-TORQUE overhead stirrer motors would be appropriate for you.

    • Do you want to accurately measure torque in Ncm, or is a general indication (bars like phone signal) acceptable?

    → If a Ncm reading is required, you need a Precision.  Otherwise, a Value would be fine.

    • Do you want to connect the overhead stirrer to a computer software system for automated monitoring or control?

    → If yes, you need a Precision, for an RS232 (or USB) interface.

    • What level of torque (turning force) do you require - low, medium or high?  This is related to the viscosity of your application - e.g. if you are stirring viscous materials, you need an overhead stirrer with high torque.  If you are currently using an overhead stirrer, you can consider the torque of that (at your stirrer speed).

    → Low torque (low viscosity) - you can use a 100 model.

    → Medium torque (medium viscosity) - a 200 model should be acceptable.

    → High torque (high viscosity) and low speeds - you need a 400 model.  

    Please note, if you want to work at medium to high speeds, a 200 model would provide more torque than a 400, because the 400s have 2 different gears - different speed ranges with different maximum torques.  Please refer to the graphs below:

    Hei-TORQUE stirrer torque v. speed graphs

    If you require any further guidance, please feel free to contact us - we'll be happy to help.

    Can you tell me the Hei-TORQUE equivalent to my old RZR (or RS) overhead stirrer?
    There are not 1:1 Hei-TORQUE equivalents for the previous models of overhead stirrers. There are many differences between the ranges.

    Therefore, you need to consider your requirements (your application etc.), and from that determine the most appropriate Hei-TORQUE model for you.  Please see the separate FAQ entry for help with choosing a Hei-TORQUE model.  Please feel free to contact us if you require any further guidance.
    Can I evaporate solvent in StarFish using the gas/vacuum manifold?
    The StarFish gas/vacuum manifold is designed to be used to remove air by vacuum to replace with nitrogen, to work under an inert atmosphere.
     
    StarFish’s gas/vacuum manifold should not be used for evaporations.  The manifold is not suitable for any significant quantities of corrosive chemicals to pass through it.
    Why is the maximum recommended solvent volume for Findenser 1 L in a 2 L flask?
    If you have too much solvent / the flask is over-filled, more vapour could be generated than the Findenser is able to condense effectively and so the Findenser may not contain all the solvent.  It is general good laboratory practice to fill flasks to a maximum of half full with solvent.

    1 L solvent in a 2 L flask is the maximum volume our R&D Laboratory have tested, and so the maximum we can guarantee will work well.

    If you use the Findenser carefully (e.g. do not overheat the solvent) and have a relatively undemanding application (e.g. a high boiling point solvent, which is therefore easy to condense), then you may well be able to successfully use Findenser with a slightly larger solvent/flask volume, although we cannot make any guarantees.
    Is the Reactor-Ready range resistant to acids?

    Summary

    • In general, Reactor-Ready is suitable for use with acids, but it is each customer’s responsibility to assess their particular application, carefully considering any risks.
    • Reactor-Ready has been specially designed to be robust and to have a reduced risk of leaking compared to other systems, but no equipment is indestructible, and safe working practices must be adhered to, with the Reactor-Ready carefully maintained, to minimise the risk of leaking/corrosion.

    Materials of parts expected to come into contact with chemicals ('wetted parts')

    • We manufacture our vessels and other glass accessories from borosilicate glass 3.3.
    • The piston (bottom outlet valve tap) in a Reactor-Ready system is PTFE and glass-filled PTFE, with FEP-encapsulated O-rings.
    • The O-ring between the vessel and lid is also FEP-encapsulated, and is held in place by a PTFE support collar.
    • The stirrers and Pt100 probes are PTFE-coated also.
    • The main body of the stirrer guide is made of PTFE too, with borosilicate glass and PEEK/PTFE parts.

    Acid resistance of wetted parts

    • Borosilicate glass 3.3, PTFE and FEP all have excellent acid resistance.
    • We have a technical data sheet on the borosilicate glass; you can download this from our Technical Information Downloads web page.
    • For PTFE and FEP, you can double check compatibility with your particular acids using chemical resistance tables/data available online.

    System maintenance and safe working practices

    • Although our systems have good chemical resistance, it’s important to regularly check the condition of all parts (particularly seals such as O-rings) – these can be damaged in other ways, such as scratching by chemical particles, wearing by moving parts, or being made brittle through exposure to extreme low temperatures.
    • We recommend you purchase the relevant maintenance kit (part number RR121150 for standard Reactor-Ready or order two for Reactor-Ready Duo; the part number is RR210100 for Reactor-Ready Pilot), as this contains the common consumables – so you can replace items as soon as any deterioration is observed, to help avoid leaks or downtime.
    • If you look after your reaction system (maintaining good sealing), you can minimise the escape of chemical vapours that could then damage less chemically resistant parts (e.g. the stirrer drop-in coupling made from stainless steel).
    • Always wipe away any chemical spills immediately and avoid exposure of Reactor-Ready systems to strong vapours such as HCl, as continued exposure to even low levels of chemicals can cause corrosion to metal and/or plastic components.
    Can I control multiple reactions at the same time in AVA?
    Yes, this is possible.

    Per instance of software (open AVA program window), you can run up to 4 reactions at the same time (including 2 Reactor-Ready Duos).

    Each reaction tab can be configured and controlled separately using a mixture of control modes (Apparatus or Schedule).  However, all the data will be recorded together in one file.  

    Please also note that, AVA will initiate communication with all devices (all tabs) as soon as you start anything running, so they all must be set up correctly and switched on before starting; furthermore, once a reaction is running, it is not possible to add any more devices to any of the reaction tabs.

    For true independent control of different reactions, you can open AVA again to create a second instance of AVA. 

    Using a second instance means you can configure devices for one reaction in one instance whilst another reaction/instance is running, as the data etc. is in a separate file.

    Please note, you can only open a maximum of 2 instances of AVA per computer.

    (Please see the separate FAQ entry on Reactor-Ready Duo and AVA.)
    How can I improve the performance of my jacketed lab reactor condenser?
    If your condenser is struggling to contain all the vapour generated in your jacketed reaction vessel, there are a number of steps you can take.

    Ensure your condenser is large enough

    It's important to use a condenser that is an appropriate size for your equipment and application, e.g. vessel size.  Here at Radleys we offer a wide range of condensers with different surface areas, and we can also make custom condensers if required. Please contact us and we'll be happy to advise.

    Use appropriate cooling water, e.g. use a suitable chiller set correctly

    Ensure you have sufficient cooling water for the condenser.  It may be helpful to use a chiller, if you do not have a suitable chilled water supply (e.g. tap water is too warm).  If you do use a chiller, make sure it has enough cooling power to effectively condense the chemical vapours.  Note that cooling power decreases with set temperature, so it may actually help to increase the temperature the chiller is set to to obtain more cooling power whilst maintaining a large enough temperature difference.  We often recommend +15⁰C; at -20⁰C the chiller will have little cooling power!

    Minimise the amount of chemical vapour generated

    Do not apply excessive heat to the reaction vessel.  There is no benefit to overheating, as the temperature cannot exceed the solvent boiling point - you simply generate more chemical vapour to be condensed.  If you are refluxing, make sure you aren't using reactor control (setting temperature via a Pt100 probe in the vessel) and setting the temperature higher than the boiling point, or the jacket temperature could keep increasing in an attempt to raise the reactor temperature, producing too much vapour.  Furthermore, ensure any exothermic reactions are controlled, e.g. by using AVA software.

    Can I use vacuum with Findenser?
    It depends on how you are intending to use vacuum.

    Subjecting the whole Findenser unit to vacuum (e.g. placing it in a vacuum drying oven)

    You should not do this - it could damage the Findenser seals.

    Pulling a vacuum through the inner glass body of the Findenser before use

    You can do this, for instance to dry the inside of the Findenser, or to remove air to replace with inert gas before an experiment.

    As the inner glass body is an open tube, the vacuum level achieved would depend on how you had it connected up (e.g. whether you made a good seal at each end, and which vacuum pump you used).

    Pulling a vacuum through the inner glass body of the Findenser during use; use as a rotary evaporator condenser

    This is not recommended.

    In rotary evaporators, vacuum is used to reduce the boiling point of the solvent, e.g. to 40°C. This would therefore reduce the temperature difference (delta T) between the chemical vapour temperature and ambient (air) temperature - and a good delta T is required for heat to effectively be dissipated out from Findenser.  Findenser would therefore not perform well, so is not suitable for this type of application.

    Furthermore, if you ran an experiment while you drew a vacuum up through the Findenser and out of the top, you would be pulling the generated chemical vapours up more quickly through the Findenser, reducing its performance; and if you connected the vacuum to a side arm, the chemical vapours would be drawn directly out the side arm, bypassing the Findenser.

    Use of Findenser on the exhaust of a vacuum pump (e.g. of a rotary evaporator)

    Findenser works well as a vacuum pump exhaust condenser - see our case study.
    What is a Carousel 6 Plus rotary evaporator adapter?

    After you’ve finished your synthesis reaction in the Carousel 6 Plus, you may wish to take the Carousel 6 Plus flask and connect it to a rotary evaporator (as the evaporating flask) to evaporate off the solvent.  This is when you would use a rotary evaporator adapter.

    Carousel 6 Plus rotary evaporator adapters










    We offer three different rotary evaporator adapters (each in a pack of 2):

    • RR99045: Rotary Evaporator Adapters Rodaviss B29 Socket to B24 Cone
    • RR99046: Rotary Evaporator Adapters Ordinary B29 Socket to B24 Cone
    • RR99055: Rotary Evaporator Adapters USA 24/40 Socket to B24 Cone
    Carousel 6 Plus rotary evaporator adapters
    What temperature should I use GreenHouse Blowdown at?
    Usually, 40°C is suitable.  This does not normally cause product decomposition.

    Nonetheless, this temperature may be reduced for less thermally stable compounds, or increased for high boiling solvents (the maximum recommended operating temperature being 150°C).
    What is the maximum sample volume that can be evaporated in GreenHouse Blowdown?

    The largest sample volumes are possible in the 4 x 2 vial racks:

    • RR99691: AT01 Vial Rack 4 x 2 (For 27.8 mm OD Vials)
    • RR99695: AT05 Vial Rack 4 x 2 (For 24.3 mm OD Vials)
    • RR99697: AT07 Vial Rack 4 x 2 (For 23.8 mm OD Vials).

    The exact maximum sample volume possible will depend on the specific vial type used, such as its internal diameter and whether it has a conical inner.  The pins should not be immersed in the sample, so this limits the fill volume of vials.  Our internal data indicates that a fill volume of up to around 17-18 ml (x 8 positions) should be possible with these vial racks.

    GreenHouse Blowdown large vials

    What tubing do I need for GreenHouse Blowdown?

    For the GreenHouse Blowdown Evaporator, you require suitable tubing:

    • To connect the inert gas (nitrogen) source to the gas inlet of the GreenHouse Blowdown Head (preferably via the Flowmeter, part number RR99680)
    • To connect the gas outlet of the GreenHouse Blowdown Head to the GreenHouse Blowdown condenser (part number RR99684 - accessory).

    We recommend:

    • RR99681: Gas Connection Tubing - 5 m length
    What is the GreenHouse Blowdown condenser? How do I connect it? How big is it?
    The GreenHouse Blowdown condenser (part number RR99684) is an accessory for the GreenHouse Blowdown Evaporator.  It is commonly used together with a receiving flask (part number RR99688).

    It is a dry ice condenser - you add dry ice / acetone into the central chamber.

    You use tubing to connect the gas outlet of the GreenHouse Blowdown to the condenser. Vapours then pass into the outer jacket of the condenser, are condensed by the dry ice in the middle, and drip down into the receiving flask.  Evaporating solvent is therefore collected.

    The total height of RR99684 and RR99688 is around 53 cm (not counting any space below it). The dimensions of the overall GreenHouse Blowdown system depend on how/where you are planning to clamp the condenser.  We can supply stands/clamps if required, including hotplate accessories.

    Click on the image below to zoom in.
    GreenHouse Blowdown condenser
    Do I set the delta T in AVA?
    Note: for an introduction to delta T, please see the separate FAQ entry 'What is delta T?'.

    Under normal circumstances, you cannot set delta T in AVA - it is not applicable.

    • If, as we recommend, you plug the Pt100 temperature probe directly into the circulator (e.g. Huber)
    • and have it configured like this in AVA (in the circulator properties box, for 'External temperature probe connected to circulator?', 'Yes' is selected)
    • then the circulator is responsible for the temperature control.  If you implement a Tr (reaction temperature) setpoint/ramp, AVA will send Tr instructions to the circulator, and the circulator will calculate the required Tj (jacket temperature).
    • In these circumstances, you should set the delta T limit in the circulator controller itself (not in AVA).  The circulator is responsible for measuring and responding to the delta T.

    If the reactor Pt100 is separate from the circulator, you do set delta T in AVA.

    • It is possible (e.g. if the circulator does not have a Pt100 socket) to plug the Pt100 for the reactor into the Data Hub instead
    • and set up the Apparatus like this in AVA (in the circulator properties box, for 'External temperature probe connected to circulator?', select 'No', then click on the outline of a temperature probe in the reactor to add a Pt100 there)
    • and then when you click on the circulator properties box, you will see that the field 'Maximum temperature difference Tr - Tj' has appeared.
    • In this case, when you set Tr, AVA calculates the Tj and sends the Tj instructions to the circulator, considering the delta T limit set in AVA.
    What is delta T?

    Delta T (ΔT) is the difference between two temperatures.  We use this term to refer to the difference between:

    • The temperature of the oil in a vessel's jacket (also called internal temperature) and
    • The temperature of the vessel contents (also known as process temperature or reaction temperature).

    We usually consider the delta T when a jacketed vessel is being heated or cooled.  The temperature of the vessel contents will lag behind the temperature of the oil in the jacket.  If the delta T is too large, it could stress the glass and lead to breakage.

    We therefore recommend that the delta T limit is set to 50°C (50K).  With current Huber thermoregulators with Pilot ONE controllers, you can adjust this by Menu → Protection Options → Delta T Limiter → type 50 in ‘New value’ field → tap ‘Ok’ to confirm. In the previous Nuevo controllers the delta T limiter can be found in the ‘Limits’ menu, and in older Unistat controllers it is program 18.

    Please note, this control can only be achieved if the contents temperature is being monitored. If it is not being monitored (if the vessel is empty, for instance) then great care should be taken to heat or cool the vessel in a controlled, gradual way to prevent thermal shock (e.g. by use of a ramp function).  When using a temperature probe in the vessel (external Pt100), please ensure the end of the Pt100 is always immersed in the vessel contents.

    Please also be aware that even if a delta T limit is set, it is possible for this limit to be exceeded slightly in practice.  If this poses a problem for you, we recommend you reduce the delta T limit setting to below your desired limit.

    What is the recommended stirring bar for StarFish?
    A variety of different glassware can be used with StarFish.  The stirring bar recommended depends on the glassware you are using.  For flasks, we suggest:

    For 500 ml flasks:

    • RR95920: Oval Stirring Bar 40 mm (Pack of 5)

    For 250 ml, 150 ml and 100 ml flasks:

    • RR99064: Elliptical Stirring Bar 25 mm RE (Pack of 10)

    For 50 ml and 25 ml flasks:

    • RR98097: Elliptical Stirring Bar 15 mm RE (Pack of 20)
    • RR98091: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 16.5 mm RE (Pack of 20)

    For 10 ml and 5 ml flasks:

    • RR98075: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 1 0mm (Pack of 40)
    How can I optimise my magnetic stirring?

    To ensure the best possible stirring, we advise:

    • Use the stirring bar we recommend for the piece of equipment / glassware you are using.
    • You could alternatively test a range of stirring bars - we offer two stirring bar evaluation kits, each containing a selection of stirring bars of different sizes and shapes.
    • Standard stirring bars lose their magnetism with time and use, so try replacing old stirring bars.
    • Rare earth stirring bars contain stronger magnets than standard stirring bars, so are particularly useful for stirring relatively viscous samples.
    • If your sample is very viscous, it may be that magnetic stirring is not sufficient and you require overhead (mechanical) stirring instead.  Depending on your sample size and number, the Tornado module for the Carousel 6 may be appropriate for you, or you could use a single overhead stirrer motor with a stirring guide for a single flask in Heat-On or Cool-It.
    For further details, please view the other FAQ entries on this topic - type 'stirring bar' in the search box.
    Can I use any hotplate with StarFish? What base plates are available?

    We offer a range of base plates for StarFish, so you can choose the one that's suitable for your hotplate:
    StarFish base plates













    The dimensions above refer to the hotplate top plate dimensions - which are matched by the recess in the bottom of the base plate for fitting onto the hotplate.

    Using the correct base plate for your hotplate ensures the StarFish system fits securely on the hotplate and there is the best possible heat transfer.

    (Each base plate itself has the same diameter, for fitting StarFish MonoBlocks or PolyBlocks onto.)
    What are aluminium flask inserts? When are they required?

    In the Carousel 6 Plus (and Carousel 6 Classic), and StarFish (using the RR95130 MonoBlock for 5 x 250 ml Flasks), the well size is for 250 ml round bottom flasks.

    For smaller flasks, it is important to use aluminium reducing inserts to make the well smaller to enable good contact and so good heat transfer between the heated well and the flask.

    Inserts for StarFish and Carousel 6 Plus









    For StarFish, we sell these as singles, as customers are quite likely to be using PolyBlocks and/or different flask sizes at once.  The part numbers are:

    • RR95330: 150 ml Flask Insert (Pack of 1)
    • RR95335: 100 ml Flask Insert (Pack of 1)
    • RR95340: 50 ml Flask Insert (Pack of 1)
    • RR95345: 25 ml Flask Insert (Pack of 1)
    • RR95350: 10 ml Flask Insert (Pack of 1)
    • RR95355: 5 ml Flask Insert (Pack of 1)

    StarFish 100 ml flask with insert











    For Carousel 6 Plus (and Classic), customers are more likely to be using the same flask volume in all 6 positions, and so we offer inserts in packs of 6:

    • RR99057: Aluminium Insert for 170 ml Reaction Flask (Pack of 6)
    • RR99058: Aluminium Insert for 100 ml Reaction Flask (Pack of 6)
    • RR99060: Aluminium Insert for 50 ml Reaction Flask (Pack of 6)
    • RR99140: Aluminium Insert for 25 ml Reaction Flask (Pack of 6)
    • RR99141: Aluminium Insert for 10 ml Reaction Flask (Pack of 6)
    • RR99142: Aluminium Insert for 5 ml Reaction Flask (Pack of 6)
    I can't screw a rod into a StarFish base plate. What's wrong?

    If you cannot screw a rod into a StarFish base plate, this indicates that you are using an incorrect rod:

    • If you have a RR95666 650 mm Split Rod, ensure that you insert the bottom half of the rod into the base plate.  The top half of the rod can only fit into the bottom half of the rod, not the base plate.

    StarFish RR95666 650 mm Split Rod




    • We sell other support rods, such as for attaching to stirring hotplates for holding temperature sensors etc., so it could be that the rod you have is actually one of these rather than a StarFish rod.

    If you need any further assistance, please contact us with photos of the ends of the rod and its length measurement, and we would be happy to help you identify which rod you have.

    Can you supply handles for StarFish so I can pick up the base plate before it's cooled?

    We offer optional insulated handles that can be fitted to any StarFish base plate:
    RR95100: StarFish Base Plate Handles (Pair)

    These allow the base plate (and MonoBlock/PolyBlocks etc. on top) to be safely picked up when hot.

    StarFish base plate handles









    NB. Extreme caution should always be used when lifting hot objects.  Please check with your laboratory safety officer to ensure that you are complying with all relevant safety procedures. Many laboratories do not allow the handling of hot liquids or objects, and so the use of the optional StarFish handles would not be permitted.
    I'm struggling to boil water (or another solvent). What am I doing wrong?
    This is a very rare situation that we have come across once before with a StarFish set-up.

    The customer wanted to boil water in 5 flasks, but reported that the water could not reach 100°C and was not boiling, despite the hotplate temperature being high.

    Unusually, they were not using condensers, or stirring.

    After investigation, we discovered that the cause was open side arms of the flasks they were using.  With the open side arms, there was a lot of evaporation, which cooled the water, and meant there was water loss without boiling.  When the side arms were stoppered, the water was able to boil.  

    Another potential cause if you are having issues reaching temperature is poor contact between the flask and well, e.g. if you are not using the correct insert for your flask size, or if your flask is misshapen.  It's also possible you have not set the hotplate temperature high enough - it needs to be above the boiling point, as there will be some heat losses.
    How many manifolds do I require for my StarFish system?
    One of the advantages of StarFish is that you can mix and match parts to build the system that suits your application.

    Manifolds are optional parts, but are generally included when using flasks in StarFish.

    StarFish water and gas manifolds










    If you would like to have water condensers in your StarFish system, you will need two water manifolds (one for water in, and one for water out).

    If you want to use vacuum or inert gas too, then you will also require a gas/vacuum manifold.

    StarFish system showing manifolds

    What tubing should I use with StarFish?
    For both the water and the gas/vacuum manifolds, we offer:

    RR95540: Tubing for Manifold inlets 15 m x 8 mm

    for connecting the water source/drain or gas/vacuum source to the single large quick connect fitting on the side of the manifold.

    RR95535: Tubing for Manifold outlets 15 m x 6.4 mm

    for connecting each of the (up to) 5 condensers to the smaller quick connect fittings on the top of the manifold.

    Both sizes of tubing are Tygon.

    Huber Unichiller and StarFish condensers
    Can I use any flasks etc. with StarFish?
    You should use round bottom flasks in StarFish systems.  Placing conical (Erlenmeyer) flasks (or beakers) directly on the base plate is not recommended, as the magnetic stirring will not be as good as with round bottom flasks.

    We sell a range of round bottom flasks that can be used with StarFish, but you can use round bottom flasks from the Carousel 6 Plus (or Classic) or from other suppliers too.

    StarFish is compatible with round bottom flasks from 5 ml to 500 ml.

    Various sizes of tubes and vials may also be used with StarFish.

    If you would like well dimensions for any StarFish MonoBlocks/PolyBlocks to check for suitability with your glassware, please feel free to ask us.
    What is the footprint of a StarFish system?
    StarFish base plates are all 248 mm in diameter.  This is normally the width of the system, as almost all MonoBlocks also have a diameter of 248 mm, and the PolyBlocks additionally give this diameter.

    The exception is the RR95125 MonoBlock for 3 x 500 ml Flasks, which is slightly larger, at 262 mm, so this would be the width.
     
    If you install the optional RR95100 StarFish Base Plate Handles, the width increases to about 375 mm.
     
    The depth of the StarFish system will depend on the hotplate used.  The approximate depth when using a Carousel Stirring Hotplate is around 310 mm, or 320 mm if using the 3 x 500 ml MonoBlock.
    What is the AUTOeasy program? What parts do I need for it?
    AUTOeasy is a program available with the Hei-VAP Precision rotary evaporator (not Hei-VAP Value or Advantage).

    The required vacuum level for the first boiling point is found automatically; the vacuum is then held constant.

    This program can be used with all Heidolph glassware sets and does not require any additional accessories.
    What is the AUTOaccurate program? What parts do I need for it?
    AUTOaccurate is an advanced program available with the Hei-VAP Precision rotary evaporator (not Hei-VAP Value or Advantage).

    It enables very precise automatic vacuum control for solvent separations.  It can change the vacuum level multiple times and identify multiple boiling points automatically - multiple solvent distillation is possible without any manual adjustments.

    The AUTOaccurate temperature sensor (part number 569-00040-00) is required for this program.  This temperature sensor is only compatible with the G3 (vertical condenser) and G6 (vertical condenser with valve for reflux distillation) glassware sets.  This means AUTOaccurate cannot be carried out with G1 (diagonal condenser) or G5 (dry ice condenser) glassware sets.
    What is the difference between valve-regulated and Vario (speed-regulated) control?

    You can choose between valve-regulated and Vario control for a rotary evaporator (depending on the vacuum source and accessories you choose).

    Valve regulation controls vacuum by opening and closing a valve.  The vacuum pump runs at full power at all times; when the vacuum reaches a specific level, the valve is triggered, opens and releases some of the vacuum.  This is a simple, low cost option.

    Vario vacuum control, possible with Vario vacuum pumps, is a more sophisticated method that works by altering the pump speed (rpm), giving more precise control.

    The advantages of this over valve control include:

    • Increased solvent recovery rate
    • Reduced bumping/foaming
    • Reduced noise and vibration
    • Reduced wear on the pump - increased lifetime
    What is a vacuum valve? When is it required?

    A vacuum valve (part number 569-00060-00) is a required accessory for the Heidolph Hei-VAP Precision when used with one of the following vacuum sources:

    • valve-regulated vacuum pump (not a Vario pump)
    • house vacuum

    The Hei-VAP Precision contains an integrated vacuum controller (the 'brains'), but you need to purchase the vacuum valve for it to open and close.

    For optimal vacuum control, a Vario vacuum pump is recommended instead (in which case you wouldn't need the vacuum valve).

    What is a manual vacuum controller? When is it recommended?

    Heidolph manual vacuum controller










    A manual vacuum controller (part number 591-26000-00) is an optional accessory for either of the following Heidolph rotary evaporators:

    • Hei-VAP Value (including Digital option)
    • Hei-VAP Advantage

    when used with one of the following vacuum sources:

    • valve-regulated vacuum pump (not a Vario pump)
    • house vacuum

    With these equipment combinations, the manual vacuum controller is recommended, as it is a low cost, simple way to enable you to monitor and control the vacuum level.  You view the dial and open the valve to bleed air into the system to adjust the vacuum.  You want to have some vacuum control so that the vacuum level is suitable for evaporating the solvent in question, and to act against bumping/foaming or overloading the condenser.

    (For optimal vacuum control, a Vario vacuum pump with integrated control panel is recommended instead, in which case you wouldn't need the manual vacuum controller.)

    Can I buy Reactor-Ready or Reactor-Ready Pilot parts to use with my existing reaction system?
    After learning about all of the advantages of Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Pilot, some customers ask whether they can purchase parts (such as a stirrer guide) to use with an existing reaction system from another supplier.

    Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Pilot parts have been designed to be used together in a complete Reactor-Ready or Reactor-Ready Pilot system.  If you tried to use a part in a reaction system from another supplier, it is likely that it wouldn't be compatible (wouldn't fit properly), we couldn't guarantee performance, and also you would be missing out on the other outstanding features of Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Pilot.

    We would therefore recommend a complete Reactor-Ready or Reactor-Ready Pilot system for the best possible experience. You can request a demonstration here.
    How can I maintain the performance of my jacketed lab reactor? What are maintenance kits?
    By looking after your equipment, you can ensure it has a long life with consistent high performance.

    Consumable items such as O-rings are expected to require replacement over time with use.  How frequently this is required will depend on how you are using the equipment (for instance, prolonged use at high speeds and high viscosities will mean faster wearing of the stirrer guide, and very low temperature work can cause the piston O-rings to become brittle).  Please regularly check all seals and moving parts and replace them if they show any signs of wearing etc. - before they fail and you have any significant leak.

    To prevent downtime, we recommend you keep spare parts so they are available to install whenever required.  We offer maintenance kits containing the most common consumables for each of our standard jacketed lab reactors:

    RR121150: Reactor-Ready Maintenance Kit

    • RR121027: Oil Wipe for Support Rods (Pack of 10)
    • RR121063: Stirrer Guide Bearing Seal B24 10 mm (Pack of 1)
    • RR121064: Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B24 10 mm (Pack of 1)
    • RR121071: 23 mm Viton O-Rings for Quick Release Hose Coupling (Pack of 2)
    • RR121072: 28 mm Viton O-Rings for Quick Release Hose Coupling - NW12 (Pack of 2)
    • RR121090: FEP Encapsulated Silicone Vessel O-ring - DN100 (Pack of 1)
    • RR166100: Replacement 15 mm Piston Top O-Ring (Pack of 1)
    • RR166102: Replacement 15 mm Piston Middle O-Ring (Pack of 1)

    N.B. For Reactor-Ready Duo, simply order 2 x RR121150.

    RR210100: Reactor-Ready Pilot Maintenance Kit

    • RR121027: Oil Wipe for Support Rods (Pack of 10)
    • RR121136: Stirrer Guide Bearing Seal B34 16mm (Pack of 1)
    • RR121138: Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B34 16mm (Pack of 1)
    • RR121071: 23 mm Viton O-Rings for Quick Release Hose Coupling (Pack of 2)
    • RR210050: 34 mm Viton O-Rings for Quick Release Hose Coupling - NW20 (Pack of 2)
    • RR210022: FEP Encapsulated Silicone Vessel O-ring - 200 mm (Pack of 1)
    • RR166104: Replacement 25 mm Piston Top O-Ring (Pack of 2)
    • RR166106: Replacement 25 mm Piston Middle O-Ring (Pack of 1)

    N.B. This does not include the Chemraz 25 mm piston top O-rings (part number RR210074 for a pack of 2), which are recommended for high temperature use.

    LR199010: Lara Maintenance Kit

    • RR121063: Stirrer Guide Bearing Seal B24 10 mm (Pack of 1)
    • RR121064: Stirrer Guide Ferrule & Shaft Seal B24 10 mm (Pack of 1)
    • RR121071: 23 mm Viton O-Rings for Quick Release Hose Coupling (Pack of 2)
    • RR121072: 28 mm Viton O-Rings for Quick Release Hose Coupling - NW12 (Pack of 2)
    • RR121090: FEP Encapsulated Silicone Vessel O-ring - DN100 (Pack of 1)
    • RR166100: Replacement 15 mm Piston Top O-Ring (Pack of 1)
    • RR166102: Replacement 15 mm Piston Middle O-Ring (Pack of 1)
    N.B. This applies to the current model of Lara (Lara Plus) only - not the older Lara Classic; if you have a Lara Classic (serial number 1001 to 1060), please contact us for advice.

    Other items that should be regularly checked and replaced as required are the PTFE piston itself, the PTFE stirrer shaft, and the whole PTFE stirrer guide.

    If you require help identifying part numbers for any reaction system parts, please feel free to contact us, and we'll be happy to help.

    Please also ensure the reaction system is kept clean (for example, clean up any chemical spillages on metal parts immediately, and do not allow residue to build up in the bottom outlet valve) to prevent avoidable damage.
    What is an oil bubbler (gas bubbler)? When is it required?

    An oil bubbler (also called a gas bubbler) is a common piece of general laboratory glassware, which is part filled with oil and vented to the atmosphere.

    Oil bubblers are generally used to prevent pressure build-up while maintaining an inert atmosphere inside a vessel.  Gas passes (bubbles) out through the bubbler, but air does not pass back through the bubbler to the reaction.  The bubbler therefore acts as a one-way valve.  Oil bubblers also provide a way to view the rate of gas flow.

    Radleys tend to sell oil bubblers for use with jacketed lab reactors (such as Reactor-Ready) for work under nitrogen etc., as it is important not to pressurise glassware (as described in the separate FAQ entry on jacketed lab reactors and pressure).

    You may find bubblers in the lab set up with Schlenk lines (vacuum-gas manifolds).

    Our standard part numbers are as follows; alternative joint sizes (and designs) are available:

    • RR139051: Oil Bubbler Type 1 B24 + GL14 + fittings
    • RR139314: Oil Bubbler Type 1 B29 + GL14 + fittings
    When filling an oil bubbler, the oil fill level should be above the bottom of the inner dip tube, but below the side arm.

    Oil bubbler (gas bubbler)
    What adapters are available for my reaction vessel run-off?
    Reactor-Ready and Lara vessels have a bottom outlet valve with a 15 mm piston and a B19 Rodaviss socket run-off.  Reactor-Ready Pilot vessels have a bottom outlet valve with a 25 mm piston and a B24 Rodaviss socket run-off.

    Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Pilot BOVs including run-offs










    For a B19 run-off, you may wish to use one of the following:

    • RR139063: PTFE Hose Adapter B19 for NW12 Tubing (which has a PTFE hose barb for connecting to tubing)

    RR139063 PTFE Hose Adapter B19 for NW12 Tubing​​




    • RR139097: Vertical Run-Off Adapter B19 to Plain (which is a glass bend with drip cone - similar to RR139340 pictured below
    • RR139098: Run-Off Secondary Valve B19 to Stopcock (which has a tap - useful to stop any weeping past the piston if working at temperature extremes) - similar to RR139137 pictured below

    For a B24 run-off, you can choose from:

    • RR139065: PTFE Hose Adapter B24 to 15 mm Bore (which is a wide bore PTFE piece)

    RR139065 PTFE Hose Adapter B24 to 15 mm Bore​​





    • RR139340: Vertical Run-Off Adapter B24 to Plain (which is a glass bend with drip cone)

    RR139340 Vertical Run-Off Adapter B24 to Plain








    • RR139137: Run-Off Secondary Valve B24 to Stopcock (which has a tap - useful to stop any weeping past the piston if working at temperature extremes)
    RR139137 Run-Off Secondary Valve B24 to Stopcock





    All of the above include a Rodaviss connection (as shown) for securing to the vessel run-off.
    Can you supply Reactor-Ready or Lara vessels with a larger bottom outlet valve?
    Reactor-Ready and Lara vessels have a 15 mm bottom outlet valve (BOV) as standard.  This is appropriate for the majority of customers.

    However, if you would prefer a 25 mm BOV for your particular application (for example, because you are working with slurries), then we can manufacture custom Reactor-Ready or Lara vessels with 25 mm BOVs.  (This option is not available for the smallest vessels.)

    The vessels of our larger jacketed lab reactor, Reactor-Ready Pilot, have 25 mm BOVs as standard.
    Can you provide a second rotor for my Reactor-Ready Pilot stirrer shaft?

    As part of our Reactor-Ready Pilot range, we offer two PTFE adjustable rotors, which may be added to any of the Reactor-Ready Pilot PTFE stirrers (16 mm shafts).

    You can choose from:

    • RR258300: Adjustable PTFE 4 Blade 45 Angle Rotor 16 mm OD 100 mm Rotor

      which is a turbine shape that forces the product down and creates good axial flow with low shear force.
    RR258300 Adjustable PTFE 4 Blade 45 Angle Rotor 16mm OD 100mm Rotor








    • RR258302: Adjustable PTFE 2 Blade Vertical Rotor 16 mm OD 100 mm Rotor

      which creates tangential flow with gentle stirring.
    RR258302 Adjustable PTFE 2 Blade Vertical Rotor 16mm OD 100mm Rotor​​







    You can position an adjustable rotor where you want along the shaft and secure it in place with the glass-filled PTFE locking nut.

    Different sizes of adjustable rotors are also available for (relatively large vessels of) other jacketed lab reactors such as the standard Reactor-Ready; please contact us for further details.
    Can you supply Reactor-Ready Pilot with feet instead of wheels?
    The RR210000 Reactor-Ready Pilot Core includes feet in addition to the standard wheels, so you can install the feet if you prefer.

    Wheels enable easier movement of the framework.  They can be locked in position for safety. Feet reduce the system height by 100 mm.
    Is a drip tray included with my jacketed lab reactor?

    A drip tray is included in the following:

    • RR121000 Reactor-Ready Core
    • RR121300 Reactor-Ready Duo Core
    • LR110055 Lara and LR110050 Lara Lite.

    However, it is not included in the RR210000 Reactor-Ready Pilot Core.  For Reactor-Ready Pilot, you can choose from the following options to order separately:

    • RR210062: Drip Tray PP 7L Capacity
    • RR210064: Drip Tray PP 22L Capacity
    • RR210066: Drip Tray PP 45L Capacity
    What tubing do I require for my Hei-VAP rotary evaporator?

    We recommend:

    • 591-35000-00: Tube Set for Hei-VAP 
    This contains suitable vacuum tubing for connecting to a vacuum pump, and suitable water tubing for connecting to a chiller (6.25 m of each).
    If you would like to supply your own tubing, the specification for both types is 7-8 mm internal diameter.
    Should I clean my Findenser? If yes, how?

    The wetted parts of Findenser (the parts that come into contact with solvent during normal use, i.e. the inner body and the cone/socket) are made from borosilicate glass 3.3.  This has very good chemical resistance (see TB 101 Glass Technical Data sheet available here).  We would still recommend that chemicals are washed off, however.

    You should limit contact of the outer parts of Findenser with any corrosive chemicals you are using.  You should wash off any spills as soon as possible, and also ensure there is not a significant concentration of corrosive chemical vapours in the air around the Findenser.

    Our recommended Findenser cleaning procedure is:

    1. Flush the internal glass surfaces with a suitable cleaning solvent such as acetone or IMS.  This is best achieved with a wash bottle.  External exposed glass surfaces may also be cleaned with a suitable solvent.  Allow washing solvent to drain into a suitable receptacle.
    2. Wash the whole Findenser assembly in warm soapy water, using a soft brush to clean fins.
    3. Rinse with warm water both internally and externally.
    4. Allow to air dry.

    If necessary, Findenser may be cleaned in a dishwasher; however, care must be taken to limit the temperature to 50˚C, or the plug/seal may be damaged.

    Do I dilute ethylene glycol for use in a circulator? By how much?
    Water-glycol can be used as a thermal fluid in open bath units and chillers (although it must not be used in Unistats).  Glycol is commonly used to reduce the freezing point of water, so you can work at low temperatures.

    You do not use ethylene glycol neat, because it is so viscous.

    You dilute it with water to reduce the viscosity and so improve the flow (and also make it more cost effective).

    The exact proportion of water-glycol to use depends on what temperature you want to work at, as the proportion determines the freezing point of the mixture – and you want to make sure that the freezing point is below the temperature that the water-glycol mixture will be cooled down to in your system.  There are tables and graphs available online that show the percentage / freezing point ratio. 

    A mixture of about 2:1 water:glycol (around 33% glycol) is often recommended, as this has quite a low freezing point without being too viscous.

    (Changing the proportion also affects the boiling point of the mixture.)
    Which vial rack and pin plate should I use in GreenHouse Blowdown?

    We offer the following vial racks and pin plates for use with the GreenHouse Blowdown Evaporator:

    • RR99691: AT01 Vial Rack 4 x 2 (For 27.8 mm OD Vials)
    • RR99692: AT02 Vial Rack 6 x 4 (For 13 mm OD Vials)
    • RR99693: AT03 Vial Rack 6 x 4 (For 13.8 mm OD Vials)
    • RR99695: AT05 Vial Rack 4 x 2 (For 24.3 mm OD Vials)
    • RR99696: AT06 Vial Rack 6 x 4 (For 15 mm OD Vials) 
    • RR99697: AT07 Vial Rack 4 x 2 (For 23.8 mm OD Vials) 

    • RR99672: GreenHouse Long Blowdown Pin Plate 6 x 4
    • RR99673: GreenHouse Blowdown Pin Plate 6 x 4
    • RR99674: GreenHouse Blowdown Pin Plate 4 x 2
    Pin plates

     



    Firstly, choose a vial rack appropriate for your vial size. The descriptions state the maximum vial outer diameter; 1 mm smaller is fine too.

    For a 4 x 2 vial rack, you will need the 4 x 2 pin plate (part number RR99674).

    For the 6 x 2 vial racks, you can choose between a pin plate with long pins (RR99672) or short pins (RR99673). The appropriate pin plate for you depends on your vial height and sample volume - you want the pins to reach inside the vials, but not to be immersed in the sample. Please contact us with details of your vials and samples for further guidance.
    I want to use a peristaltic pump with AVA. What should I purchase?

    The part number for a peristaltic pump that is compatible with AVA Software is:

    • RR20400: Peristaltic Pump 400 rpm 2000 ml/min

    However, we highly recommend that rather than purchasing a peristaltic pump individually, you order:

    • RR20500: Gravimetric Additions Module.  This includes a balance - you place the feed vessel for the pump on the balance and use it to monitor how much (g) you have added.  In AVA Software, you link the peristaltic pump and balance together and control them as one unit (instruct the pump to add a specified amount in g).

    The RR20500: Gravimetric Additions Module also includes important accessories such as the correct RS232 cables to connect the peristaltic pump and balance to a Data Hub and to AVA Software, peristaltic pump tubing and fittings for feeding the tubing into a jacketed lab reactor (Reactor-Ready etc.) lid.

    N.B. Heidolph peristaltic pumps are not compatible with AVA Software.

    What is a reflux divider?
    A reflux divider system enables you to switch between refluxing and evaporation/distillation in a jacketed lab reactor.  It allows you to carry out an evaporation after your synthesis without having to change equipment.

    A reflux divider head is a glass piece with a PTFE valve.  It is fitted in between the condenser and the reactor lid.  When the valve is closed, you reflux: vapour from the vessel travels up into the condenser and condensate flows back down into the vessel. When you open the valve, vapour travels up into condenser as before, but now condensate is run off to be collected in a separate receiver flask.

    We offer reflux divider kits for our reaction systems, each containing the reflux divider head, a condenser, and fittings for the reflux divider head to connect to a receiver flask. (Items can also be purchased separately.)

    You have the option of a standard reflux divider head (shown left), or one with a temperature probe port (shown right) together with a short Pt100 probe and adapter. The latter set-up enables you to measure the temperature of the vapour entering the condenser.  This Pt100 could be plugged into a Data Hub to be monitored by AVA software.

    Reactor-Ready Pilot reflux dividers
    How do I choose between Breeze and Storm? What are the differences?

    Breeze and Storm are both used in place of a hotplate to provide heating and cooling. Their different designs mean differences in performance and differences in the applications they are optimised for.

    Breeze

    • No internal insulation
    • Smaller size
    • Narrower process temperature range of -30°C to +165°C
    • Faster temperature changes
    • Recommended for applications such as crystallisation studies
    • Suitable for use with Carousel 6 Plus and Tornado, or Heat-On with an overhead stirrer
    • M16 (male) fittings for circulator (thermoregulator) hoses.  (Adapters are available for use with different size hoses.)

    Storm

    • More advanced internal design, with insulation
    • Larger, with surface contour specially designed to fit the Carousel 6 Plus base
    • Wider process temperature range of -65°C to +200°C
    • Recommended for steady state reactions that require stable temperatures for extended periods
    • Designed for use with Carouse 6 Plus and Tornado
    • M24 (male) fittings for circulator (thermoregulator) hoses. (Adapters are available for use with different size hoses.)

    For comparison data showing Breeze (left) and Storm (right) heating and cooling performance, please refer to the Breeze and Storm technical data sheet (available here), or the data in our Carousel 6 Plus family leaflet.
    Breeze
    Storm

    Do you sell a Pt1000 compatible with Tornado?

    Typically, when you have Carousel 6 Plus with a Carousel Stirring Hotplate, you use a standard length Pt1000:

    • RR91226: Pt1000 S/S Temperature Sensor, threaded through the Carousel 6 Plus reflux/additions head and into a probe hole in the base.

    If you have a Tornado Plus set up on top of the Carousel 6 Plus, you will require an extra-long Pt1000 that fits through the Tornado too.  

    • RR99239: Pt1000 S/S Sensor with 345 mm Probe.

    This applies to the Carousel 6 Classic and the Tornado Classic too.

    What are vessel kits? What are the advantages? Can I customise them?
    We highly recommend that you purchase vessel kits for use with our standard jacketed lab reactors (Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo, Reactor-Ready Pilot or Lara).

    They are outstanding value for money (costing less than if you purchased all the parts individually), and ensure that you have the key vessel accessories.

    Vessel kits include the vessel (with sidearm couplings), a PTFE stirrer and a PTFE Pt100 temperature probe both of an appropriate size for the vessel, and an adapter for securing the Pt100 in the lid.
    Reactor-Ready process vessel kit















    Standard shape Reactor-Ready and Lara vessel kits include an anchor stirrer. Process shape Reactor-Ready and Lara vessel kits, plus Reactor-Ready Pilot vessel kits, include a turbine stirrer. These stirrer shapes suit the majority of customers.

    Vessel kit components are set and cannot be customised.

    Nonetheless, the full range of stirrer shapes - anchor, turbine and retreat curve - are available to purchase separately for every vessel volume and shape.

    Due to the vessel kits' excellent value for money, if you would like a different shape of stirrer, it would be best for you to order the vessel kit plus the additional stirrer, rather than ordering the parts you want (vessel, preferred stirrer, Pt100 and adapter) individually.

    Please note, vessel kits do not include a metal vessel support collar.
    What is the standard Pt1000 made of? Is there an alternative?

    The standard Pt1000 temperature probe we supply for use with Carousel Stirring Hotplates or Heidolph hotplates is stainless steel.  This is suitable for the majority of applications, such as placing into a probe hole in a Heat-On block or Carousel base.

    Nonetheless, if you want to put the Pt1000 directly into your sample and your chemistry corrodes stainless steel, then we can offer an alternative glass-coated Pt1000.

    The part numbers of the Pt1000s (if purchased individually) are:

    • RR91226: Pt1000 S/S Temperature Sensor
    • RR91227: Pt1000 Glass Coated Temperature Sensor
     
    N.B. Pt1000s are different than the PTFE Pt100 temperature probes we supply as part of our jacketed lab reactor systems such as Reactor-Ready.
    Can I use a Carousel or GreenHouse with a Heidolph hotplate?
    The Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus reaction stations (and the older Classic versions), as well as the GreenHouse Plus Parallel Synthesiser (and Classic) and the GreenHouse Blowdown, all have a 135 mm diameter recess in the base for locating onto a hotplate.

    This means that they can be used with any stirring hotplate that has a 135 mm diameter top plate, such as the Radleys range of Carousel Stirring Hotplates.

    Standard Heidolph hotplates have a 145 mm top plate, and so are not compatible with this Radleys equipment.
    Are PTFE insulating plates included with my Carousel?

    We offer PTFE insulating plates for the bases of our Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus. You may choose to use these for improved performance (reducing heat loss) and safety (reducing the external temperature).

    Carousel 6 Plus

    • RR99916 Carousel 6 Plus Reaction Station does not include the PTFE insulating plates.
    • RR96220 PTFE Insulating Plates for Carousel 6 Plus are optional accessories that can be purchased if required.
    • Storm (RR96200) is the only product that includes the RR96220 PTFE Insulating Plates for Carousel 6 Plus.  They are not included with RR96210 Breeze.

    Carousel 6 Plus PTFE insulating plates
    ​​





















    Carousel 12 Plus

    • Removable PTFE insulating plates are included in the RR91030 Carousel 12 Plus Reaction Station.
    Carousel 12 Plus PTFE insulating plates
    I have seen pictures of the VISCO JET rotors. Do I need to buy a shaft separately?
    Each VISCO JET rotor is supplied with a shaft that you attach (by screwing the two parts together).

    The shaft is 10 mm in diameter and 500 mm in length.
    Can you supply a glass stirrer for my Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo or Reactor-Ready Pilot?
    The stirrers we offer for our jacketed lab reactor range are PTFE.  PTFE has excellent chemical resistance and has been selected as it is the most appropriate material for the majority of customers.  We recommend you use the standard PTFE stirrers if possible.

    If you are concerned about a risk of PTFE flakes shedding from the stirrer guide/shaft into the vessel, we can reassure you that the design of our drop-in stirrer coupling means that the stirrer shaft does not pivot in the stirrer guide as in traditional designs, and so there is a reduced risk of PTFE wearing.

    Nonetheless, if your laboratory regulations mean that PTFE would not be acceptable, then yes, we can supply glass stirrer shafts, and glass stirrer guides to use with them.  Please contact us with your specifications if you would like a quotation.

    Please be advised, glass is by its nature fragile, and so not advised for high viscosity/speed applications.

    Please also note, you would need to use some lubricant between the glass stirrer shaft and the glass stirrer guide; this can be food-grade if required, as it can come into contact with the vessel contents.
    Can you supply a stainless steel stirrer for my Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo, Reactor-Ready Pilot or Lara?
    The stirrers we offer for our jacketed lab reactor range are PTFE.  PTFE has excellent chemical resistance, and has been selected as it is the most appropriate material for the majority of customers.

    Furthermore, the standard Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Pilot and Lara stirrers are specially designed to have the correct shaft diameter for their stirrer guide, and an appropriate shaft length and rotor diameter for the specified vessel.

    We recommend that you use the standard Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Pilot or Lara PTFE stirrers if at all possible.  These are included in the great value vessel kits.

    We do have some standard stainless steel stirrers, but these are part of the overhead stirrer motor range and are offered for general lab applications rather than for any of our jacketed lab reactors.  They do not have the correct dimensions for Reactor-Ready etc.

    Nonetheless, if you do need a stainless steel stirrer for Reactor-Ready etc., we could potentially supply one as a custom item.  (Please note, vessel kits are set, so you could not swap the PTFE stirrer in a vessel kit with a custom stainless steel stirrer.)

    Please be advised, using a stainless steel stirrer shaft within our standard PTFE stirrer guides could lead to wear and shedding of PTFE from the guide.  We would therefore advise using the stainless steel stirrer with a custom stirrer guide that has a PEEK insert in the end to minimise the wearing/shedding.
    How can I set up monitoring or control of pH in AVA?
    With an AVA level 4 licence, you can monitor a pH meter/probe and also control additions of acid or base (by a peristaltic pump) via the measured pH. If you do not have a level 4 licence, you can still explore these options using the demo mode.

    If you simply want to view and log pH, in the AVA software add a pH probe (pH meter) to the miscellaneous zone (the top right grey box in the Apparatus window). This pH measurement can be used to ensure a safe system (e.g. use it for a step override or to trigger a safe state) - please see the separate FAQ entries on AVA safety features for further details.

    If you would like to make a controlled addition of acid or base in order to maintain or change pH, then you will need to use the additions zone (the bottom right grey box in the Apparatus window):
    • First, add a (peristaltic) pump to the additions zone.
    • Below it (in the same box) add the pH probe (pH meter).
    • Select whether you are adding acid or base.
    • You can now set a pH setpoint or ramp (in either the Apparatus or Schedule windows).
    N.B. Please see the separate FAQs entry 'What parts do I need to add a pH meter/probe to my Reactor-Ready or other jacketed lab reactor?' for the part numbers of pH equipment compatible with AVA.

    Important

    Please note, a peristaltic pump is required for the pH control described above. It is not possible to link a syringe pump to a pH probe/meter in AVA to control pH using a syringe.
    What parts do I need to add a pH meter/probe to my Reactor-Ready or other jacketed lab reactor?

    We highly recommend:

    RR20502: pH Module

    Comprising:

    • RR20424: pH/mV/Temp Meter Portable + Control Cable
    • RR20438: Cable pH Meter to Combination VP Probe 3 m
    • RR139087: Adapter Rodaviss B34 to GL25
    • RR139125: Swivel 12 mm pH Probe Adapter GL25 
    • RR20440: Buffer Solution Certified pH 4.01 +/-0.02 - 500 ml
    • RR20442: Buffer Solution Certified pH 7.00 +/-0.02 - 500 ml
    • RR20444: Buffer Solution Certified pH 9.21 +/-0.02 - 500 ml
    This includes the correct RS232 cable for connecting the pH meter to a Data Hub to enable monitoring/control by AVA software.

    An adapter to secure the pH probe in a B34 socket in the vessel lid is also included.

    However, you need to purchase a pH probe separately.  You should select the pH probe with the appropriate length for your vessel volume.  You can choose from the following probes:

    • RR20432: Combination VP pH Probe 325 mm x 12 mm (100 ml 250 ml 500 ml vessels)
    • RR20434: Combination VP pH Probe 360 mm x 12 mm (1000 ml vessels)
    • RR20436: Combination VP pH Probe 425 mm x 12 mm (2000 ml 3000 ml 5000 ml vessels)

    (Please note, these pH probes are suitable for use at 0-130°C.)

    For larger Reactor-Ready Pilot vessels, we can supply a custom adapter that fits in an angled B45 lid socket and enables a short pH probe to be positioned deeper in the vessel.  Please contact us for further details.

    N.B. We cannot guarantee that pH meters or probes not supplied by Radleys would be compatible with Radleys kit.  Please contact us if you require advice on this topic.

    I would like to test a range of stirring bars. Do you sell any selection packs?
    We offer two stirring bar evaluation kits, each containing a selection of stirring bars. These are useful for trialling different stirring bars in an application, or simply if you require magnetic stirring for a range of glassware.

    RR98095: PTFE Magnetic Stirring Bar Evaluation Kit

    30 stirring bars in total – contains 3 each of:

    • RR99064: Elliptical Stirring Bar 25 mm RE
    • RR98097: Elliptical Stirring Bar 15 mm RE
    • RR98096: Elliptical Stirring Bar 10 mm RE
    • RR98091: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 16.5 mm RE
    • RR98075: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 10 mm 
    • RR98113: Cylindrical Stirring Bar 12 mm RE
    • RR99613: Pivot Ring Stirring Bar 15 mm
    • RR98071: Pivot Ring Stirring Bar 12 x 6mm
    • RR99607: Pivot Ring Stirring Bar 12 x 4.5mm
    • RR98070: Octagonal Stirring Bar 13 mm

    RR71200: Stirring Bar Evaluation Kit – for Flasks

    10 stirring bars in total – contains 2 each of:

    • RR95921: Oval Stirring Bar 50 mm
    • RR95920: Oval Stirring Bar 40 mm
    • RR99064: Elliptical Stirring Bar 25 mm RE
    • RR98091: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 16.5 mm RE
    • RR98075: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 10 mm 
    Can I use my Carousel 6 glassware with Tornado?
    Yes, you can use Carousel 6 glassware in Tornado.  

    The glassware used in the current Carousel 6 (the Carousel 6 Plus) is compatible with the current Tornado (Tornado Plus).  If you have an older Carousel 6 (a Carousel 6 Classic), then its glassware is compatible with the Tornado Classic (which is still available to purchase).

    The one exception is that if you have an azeotropic (Dean-Stark) flask, it must be a Tornado version to be able to fit a centrifugal stirrer paddle through the constricted neck and so use it with a Tornado.

    Please also note, only the centrifugal style stirrers (which are collapsible) can fit through standard Carousel 6 glassware necks.  If you would like to use anchor or propeller stirrers (for example, if your samples are viscous), you would need to use specially designed Carousel 6 wide neck flasks and reflux tubes (which we can supply for either Plus or Classic equipment).
    What precautions should I take when working at extreme temperatures in my jacketed lab reactor?
    All our jacketed lab reactors (including Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo, Reactor-Ready Pilot and Lara) have an advised temperature range of -70°C to +230°C (thermal fluid temperature, i.e. circulator internal temperature).

    When working at low temperatures, vacuum jacketed vessels are recommended - please see the separate FAQ entry on vacuum jacketed vessels for further details.

    In addition, for extreme low temperatures (below -50°C), we suggest that piston O-rings are replaced between every run, because these conditions can cause the O-rings to harden and become brittle, potentially reducing the effectiveness of the seal.

    For temperatures above +150˚C, for Reactor-Ready Pilot, we recommend the use of high performance Chemraz piston O-rings to minimise the risk of weeping.  The O-rings should be inspected between runs and replaced regularly.

    We also offer a secondary valve for the run-off (outlet) of the bottom outlet valve (part number RR139098 for Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo or Lara; RR139137 for Reactor-Ready Pilot) to catch any liquid that may weep around the piston at temperature extremes.

    RR139137 Run-Off Secondary Valve B24 to Stopcock






    Additional considerations when working at high or low temperatures are the temperature limits of your circulator (remembering that the temperature range of the process will be narrower than this) and thermal fluid (especially regarding high viscosity at low temperatures and inert gas blanketing at high temperatures).

    If you chose to work beyond our recommended temperature guidelines, this would be at your own risk.  One potential issue is that PTFE (used for many Reactor-Ready parts) can soften when used at very high temperatures.
    Can you provide baffles for my Reactor-Ready Pilot vessels?

    Yes, we offer PTFE baffles for Reactor-Ready Pilot.

    In contrast to standard Reactor-Ready, you do not need a vessel support collar.  This is because individual baffles are inserted into unused lid sockets.  Commonly, only 1 (or 2) baffles are used.

    The option of Pt100 baffle probes means you can combine process temperature measurement and a baffle in one item and so only one lid socket is required for these two functions.

    Reactor-Ready Pilot baffle probe








    You will need to select the appropriate compression fitting to secure the baffle in the chosen lid socket size.  The baffle height in the vessel can be adjusted within the compression fitting, and the baffle can be turned to change the profile into the flow.

    The part numbers are:

    • RR257000: PTFE Baffle - 16mm OD, 35 mm, 600 mm
    • RR257002: PTFE Baffle - 16mm OD, 35 mm, 700 mm
    • RR257004: Pt100 PTFE Baffle Probe + Lemo - 16 mm OD, 35 mm, 600 mm 
    • RR257006: Pt100 PTFE Baffle Probe + Lemo - 16 mm OD, 35 mm, 700 mm
    • RR257008: B24 to 16 mm PTFE Compression Fitting
    • RR257010: B29 to 16 mm PTFE Compression Fitting
    • RR257012: B34 to 16 mm PTFE Compression Fitting
    Can you provide baffles for my Reactor-Ready or Lara vessels?
    We have a range of removable PTFE baffles for Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara, specifically designed for each vessel volume and shape.

    For all current (flat flange) vessels, you will need the RR257100: PTFE Support Collar for Baffles & O-Ring to add PTFE baffles to a vessel. 

    Reactor-Ready new baffle collar







    RR257100 holds 3 baffles, and so all the Reactor-Ready/Lara baffles are supplied in packs of 3.

    Reactor-Ready new baffles
















    (Please note, we have recently redesigned our baffles and baffle collar.  All new baffles require the new baffle collar RR257100.  The previous baffle collar, RR157000, was used with older-style baffles.)

    We do not supply PTFE baffles for 100 ml vessels (the smallest size), as there is not enough space in the vessel.

    Alternatively, we can indent small baffles into the inner wall of the glass vessel itself as custom.
    What are the laptop/PC requirements for AVA?

    As stated on the AVA download web page, the computer requirements for AVA are:

    • Operating system: Microsoft Windows XP SP2/3, Microsoft Windows 7, or Microsoft Windows 8
    • CPU: Duo Core 1.9 GHz processor
    • Memory: 2 GB RAM minimal; 4 GB RAM recommended
    • Hard disk: 30 GB minimal; 5400 rpm
    • Graphics: Intel HD Graphics
    • Language: English only

    Additional information:

    • Microsoft .Net drivers required
    • Internet 8 Explorer or equivalent required
    • To install AVA you must have full administrative rights on your computer
    • Once a licence is activated on a PC it is not possible to move it

    If you order an AVA Software Kit, an appropriate laptop, already configured for AVA, will be included.

    Can AVA be used on a Windows tablet computer, with no cables?
    To run an experiment in AVA (control real devices), the computer running AVA must be connected via a cable to a Data Hub, which is connected by cables to the devices - it cannot communicate wirelessly.

    You do not need the computer to be connected if you simply want to use demo mode, set up equipment within AVA, write recipes or analyse data.
    Can you provide performance data for Heat-On?
    Yes - you can download 'TDS02S Heat-On Application Bulletin' from our Technical Information Downloads webpage
    Can you supply insulation for the Carousel 6 Plus, for increased performance and safety?
    We offer PTFE insulating plates for the Carousel 6 Plus as an optional accessory.  The part number is RR96220.

    Carousel 6 Plus PTFE insulating plates





















    RR96220 is included if you purchase the Storm Work Station.

    The insulating plates provides a thermal barrier that both increases energy efficiency, maximising the performance of the Carousel 6 Plus, and provides a safety barrier, reducing the external temperature of the base, and so protecting the user from high temperatures.
    How do I choose an appropriate overhead stirrer motor for use with Tornado?
    RR99951 Tornado Plus Overhead Stirring System does not include an overhead stirrer motor, as different models may be suitable for different customers' applications.

    One point to consider when selecting an overhead stirrer model is whether you would like to control and monitor the overhead stirrer using AVA software.  If so, you will need an overhead stirrer with an RS232 interface, such as the Radleys RS100 Control Plus.

    It is also vital to choose an overhead stirrer with enough torque (turning force) at the particular speeds you want to use.  Be aware that a reasonable amount of torque will be required even if your samples are not viscous, more torque is required if you do have viscous samples or want to work at high speeds, and also that the torque of mechanical stirrers decreases as the speed increases.

    If you would like further assistance, please contact us, and we'll be happy to help.
    Do I need to purchase a stand to use with a Tornado, or is it included?
    The RR99951 Tornado Plus Overhead Stirring System does not include a stand for an overhead stirrer motor, so one will need to be ordered separately.

    We recommend the RR99230 Universal Support Stand shown below.

    RR99230	Universal Support Stand











    If you will be using the Tornado with Breeze, this includes its own integral stand.

    Tornado with Breeze

    Can I replace the O-ring between my jacketed lab reactor vessel and lid?

    The part number of the O-ring between the vessel and lid, which is held in place by the white PTFE collar, for Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara is:

    • RR121090: FEP Encapsulated Silicone Vessel O-Ring - DN100

    For the larger Reactor-Ready Pilot, it is:

    • RR210022: FEP Encapsulated Silicone Vessel O-Ring - 200 mm

    Reactor-Ready Pilot DN100 vessel O-ring and PTFE support collar






    All O-rings are considered consumables (to be replaced as required), and they are included in the respective maintenance kits:

    • RR121150: Reactor-Ready Maintenance Kit
    • LR199010: Lara Maintenance Kit
    • RR210100: Reactor-Ready Pilot Maintenance Kit

    The FEP outer of these O-rings has excellent chemical resistance and the silicone inside gives flexibility. Nonetheless, if you would like to try an alternative O-ring material, we offer the following alternatives for the small DN100 size:

    • RR139103: Viton Vessel O-ring Seal - DN100
    • RR139105: Isolast Vessel O-ring Seal - DN100
    • RR139107: Chemraz Vessel O-ring Seal - DN100
    What is the height of Reactor-Ready Pilot?

    The Reactor-Ready Pilot framework is 1890 mm high with wheels, or 1790 mm with feet instead.

    If you use it with tall lid accessories such as a condenser with reflux divider and right angle adapter, the total height of the system can be 2225 mm with wheels.

    If you want to locate Reactor-Ready Pilot in a fume hood with restricted height, it is possible to reduce the height of the framework by purchasing one of the following kits:

    • RR210070: Reactor-Ready Pilot Core - 200 mm Height Reduction Kit
    • RR210072: Reactor-Ready Pilot Core - 300 mm Height Reduction Kit
    Can I buy replacement silicone septa for my Carousel PTFE caps?
    Yes. The part number for the silicone septa (Suba-Seals) in the white PTFE Carousel caps is RR98076 for a pack of 100.

    Carousel silicone septa










    These are considered consumable items as they are likely to deteriorate over time with normal use, e.g. due to piercing the septa with a syringe for additions.

    Suba-Seals are available in Viton if preferred; the part number is RR98176 for a pack of 100.

    Carousel cap septa - silicone and Viton
    Can you supply a Findenser without water sealed inside?
    Findenser contains a small volume of encapsulated water, vital for effective heat transfer.

    The water in Findenser is sealed inside and cannot escape during normal use.

    However, we understand that your particular chemistry and safety guidelines may mean that the potential risk of water leaking from the Findenser (e.g. if the glass was broken somehow) is not acceptable.

    We don’t currently offer a standard Findenser with an alternative heat transfer medium in place of water.

    If you would like to enquire about whether we could manufacture a custom Findenser for you, please contact us with full details (quantity and proposed alternative heat transfer medium), and we will investigate.
    Is there a gap/pause between steps in the AVA Schedule?
    When you view the AVA Schedule, you will see a very small gap shown in between steps.

    This is simply how the steps are visually displayed on AVA, for clear viewing.

    There is no delay between steps when you run the Schedule - each step will begin immediately after the preceding step.
    What is the maximum number of samples that can be evaporated using the GreenHouse Blowdown?

    The GreenHouse Blowdown evaporates samples by blowing inert gas through pins onto your samples – one pin per sample.

    There are three types of pin plate available:

    • RR99672: GreenHouse Long Blowdown Pin Plate 6 x 4
    • RR99673: GreenHouse Blowdown Pin Plate 6 x 4
    • RR99674: GreenHouse Blowdown Pin Plate 4 x 2

    The maximum number of samples is therefore 24.  You can use the long or short pin plates as appropriate for your sample volumes / vessels.

    In the AVA Schedule, how long is a pause? Can you change the duration of the pause?
    A pause command added to an AVA Schedule step doesn’t correspond to a set time period such as 1 minute.  Instead, when a pause is activated, a message is displayed on the screen and the experiment is paused until you click the Continue button to allow the experiment to resume.

    If you simply press the pause button (rather than adding a pause command to the Schedule), the pause lasts until you press the play button to resume the experiment.

    You can read about the pause function in the AVA help pages (accessed via the AVA software itself - it's free to download a demo version) - just type 'pause' in the AVA help search box.
    What is the recommended stirring bar for GreenHouse?

    For the current GreenHouse Plus, we recommend:

    • RR99613: Pivot Ring Stirring Bar 15 mm (Pack of 40)

    For the older GreenHouse Classic, with slightly narrower tubes, the following is advised instead:

    • RR99607: Pivot Ring Stirring Bar 12 x 4.5 mm (Pack of 40)
    What is the recommended stirring bar for Carousel 12 Plus?

    For standard Carousel 12 Plus tubes, we recommend:

    • RR98091: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 16.5 mm RE (Pack of 20)

    For reduced-volume Carousel 12 Plus tubes, we advise a smaller bar:

    • RR98075: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 10 mm (Pack of 40)
    What is the recommended stirring bar for Carousel 6 Plus?

    For most Carousel 6 Plus flasks (250 ml, 170 ml and 100 ml), we recommend:

    • RR99064: Elliptical Stirring Bar 25 mm RE (Pack of 10)

    For 50 ml and 25 ml flasks:

    • RR98097: Elliptical Stirring Bar 15 mm RE (Pack of 20)
    • RR98091: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 16.5 mm RE (Pack of 20)

    For 10 ml and 5 ml flasks:

    • RR98075: Cross Shape Stirring Bar 10 mm (Pack of 40)
    If you would like to test a variety of stirring bars, all of the above types plus others are included in RR98095: PTFE Magnetic Stirring Bar Evaluation Kit.
    Can I use a Carousel 6 Plus azeotropic (Dean-Stark) flask in Tornado Plus?

    Yes, you can use an azeotropic (Dean-Stark) flask with Tornado.

    Please note, it must be a Tornado azeotropic flask, as these have a wider neck than the standard azeotropic flasks to allow a stirrer shaft to fit through:

    • RR99939: 100 ml Tornado Azeotropic Reaction Flask (Pack of 3)
    • RR99938: 250 ml Tornado Azeotropic Reaction Flask (Pack of 3)

    Furthermore, only the collapsible centrifugal stirrers will fit.  Anchor and propeller stirrers are too large to fit through the neck into the flask.

    • RR99240: Centrifugal PTFE Stirrer Paddle (Pack of 6)
    • RR99241: Centrifugal PTFE Stirrer Paddle (Pack of 1)

    The images below show the flasks with the stirrers and Tornado caps fitted.​

    Azeotropic 250ml flask for Tornado Azeotropic 100ml flask for Tornado

    What cable do I need to connect my Heidolph hotplate to a Data Hub and AVA?

    Your hotplate needs to have an RS232 port (interface) - so it must be the Hei-End model.

    There are different types of RS232 cables.  It is vital you use the right one for your specific device.

    For the Heidolph Hei-End hotplate, the correct RS232 cable is:

    • 14-007-045-17: Interface Cable RS232
    What cable do I need to connect my Radleys Carousel Stirring Hotplate to a Data Hub and AVA?

    Your hotplate needs to have an RS232 port (interface) - so it must be the Carousel Advanced model.

    There are different types of RS232 cables.  It is vital you use the right one for your specific device.

    For the Radleys Carousel Advanced Stirring Hotplate, the correct RS232 cable is:

    • RR91234: RS232 Interface Cable - 15 Pin to 9 Pin
    Does the Data Hub come with the required cables?

    The Data Hub includes all required non-device-specific cables, such as an Ethernet cable to connect the Data Hub to the laptop/PC.  The following parts are supplied with the Data Hub:

    • RR20210: Data Hub Power Supply
    • RR20212: Ethernet Cable – Network – Straight Through, 3m
    • RR20214: Ethernet Cable – PC – Cross Over, 2m
    • RR20216: Configuration Serial Cable, PC to Hub, 2m   
     
    Please note that you will still need to ensure you have the correct RS232 cable for connecting your specific device to the Data Hub.
    What tubing do I need for my Carousel reflux/inerting head?

    We offer the following tubing for connecting the white fittings (quick connects) on the Carousel reflux/inerting head to your water or gas/vacuum supply:

    • RR99067: Tubing for Inert Gas or Reflux Cooling 2 Metres
    Do I need Velcro or silicone StarFish clamps? Can I swap between them? Can I buy replacement straps?

    Both the 5-way and 3-way StarFish clamps are available with either silicone or Velcro straps.

    • RR95400: Telescopic 5-way Clamp inc Velcro
    • RR95405: Telescopic 3-way Clamp inc Velcro
    • RR95410: Telescopic 5-way Clamp inc Silicone Strap + Long Handle
    • RR95415: Telescopic 3-way Clamp inc Silicone Strip + Long Handle

    StarFish systems - silicone and Velcro clamps

    The silicone rubber straps are recommended for the lower StarFish clamp.  They grip glassware, and are very durable.  The silicone clamps have a handle for lifting glassware away from the heat.

    We additionally offer Viton straps as an alternative to the silicone straps, for increased chemical resistance.  The part number for the straps is:

    • RR95444: Viton Strap 200 mm (Pack of 5)

    The Velcro straps can be used for the upper clamp.  They are designed to not grip glassware tightly, allowing condensers to slide through the straps when glassware is lifted (by the silicone clamp), whilst still offering some support.  Please note the Velcro straps are not suitable for suspending unsupported glassware.  The Velcro can be weakened by exposure to high temperatures, chemical vapours or sunlight.  Velcro straps and pads are consumable items that should be replaced as required. 

    Velcro part numbers are:

    • RR95430: Replacement Self Adhesive Velcro Pads (Pack of 10)
    • RR95440: Replacement Velcro Loop Strips 200 mm (Pack of 5)

    StarFish 5-way clamps - Velcro and silicone









    It is possible to convert from a Velcro clamp to a silicone clamp using the RR95450 kit, composed of:

    • RR95412: Clamp Long Handle
    • RR95432: Strap Securing Pins (Pack of 10)
    • RR95442: Silicone Strap 200 mm (Pack of 5)
    What safety features does AVA have?

    In addition to automation enabling you to reduce manual errors and run unattended experiments safely, AVA offers a variety of safety settings that you can choose from to suit your application:

    1. Set global device limits

      For example, you can set maximum and minimum temperature, as appropriate for your devices (equipment) and process.This restricts what each device can be set to in AVA.

    2. Set step overrides

      For example, you can set an addition step to temporarily stop if the temperature increases beyond a certain point.

    3. Set device warnings

      Be alerted (visually by the reading turning yellow in the Apparatus window, with optional/additional audio alarm) if a chosen sensor reading is out of a user-defined range, but the reaction continues unless you manually stop it.

    4. Set a safe state

      If a specified sensor reading is out of a user-defined range, all devices in that particular reaction tab go into a user-defined safe mode (e.g. pump stops, circulator cools and overhead stirrer continues at a set speed). You can add a sound to warn you that a safe state has been activated, in addition to the default visual notification.

    5. Set a shutdown

      All devices in all reaction tabs are stopped (and a message appears on the screen to inform you of the situation) if a chosen sensor reading is out of a range you defined.

    For further information on each of these options, please see the individual FAQs on this website, or the AVA Help pages accessed via AVA Software itself (which is free to download in demonstration mode here).

    How do I set up a warning, safe state or shutdown in AVA?
    Warnings, safe states and shutdowns are three of the safety features available in AVA. (Please see the separate FAQ entry for an overview of AVA safety features, or consult the AVA help pages accessed via the AVA software itself for further details.)

    To set up a warning, safe state or shutdown

    1. When you're in an AVA reaction tab, click on the settings cog at the top left of the Apparatus window.
    2. In the pop-up window that opens, select the sensor reading from the Sensor list on the left that you would like to be the trigger.
    3. Then tick the box under the Conditions heading on the right to choose the safety feature you want to set up, and to specify the conditions to trigger the safety feature. For example, select 'Circulator 1:T Jacket', 'Display a Warning', and type in the upper and lower limits beyond which the warning will occur.
    If you tick the safe state tick box, the bottom of the pop-up window will expand, showing you the options to define your safe state (e.g. you want the circulator to cool the jacket temperature to 20°C, and the pump to stop).

    It is possible to simultaneously set up a warning, safe state and shutdown for a sensor, all with different trigger ranges.  You can also configure multiple sensors to have their own warning, safe state and shutdown triggers.

    To add an audio alarm for a warning, safe state or shutdown

    In AVA, click on the File tab, select Settings from the list on the left, and then click the General Settings tab on the right.

    Tick the box 'Use sound notifications', then use the drop-downs to select sounds to alert you when warnings, safe states or shutdowns have been activated.  (You can pick different sounds for each.)  You can use the 'Test' buttons to test the sound.
    How do I set up a step override in AVA?

    A step override is a safety feature you can use in the AVA Schedule.  For the step:

    • Specify the conditions you want to trigger the override
    • Specify what you want the device to do under override conditions.

    For example, in a pump addition step, you can add an override so that if the reaction temperature exceeds a certain value, the pump addition stops.

    To set up a step override, in AVA's Schedule window:

    1. Click on the relevant step for its properties window to appear.  
    2. Press the down arrow next to 'Overrides' to expand
    3. Click 'Add ...'.  You can then select your trigger conditions and override action.

    When a step override is triggered, the Schedule pauses at the current position in the timeline and the override action occurs.  Once the override trigger conditions end (e.g. the temperature drops back down) and so no override is active, the Schedule pause is lifted and AVA resumes progressing through the Schedule steps.

    You can refer to the separate website FAQ entry for an overview of AVA safety features, or consult the AVA Help pages accessed via the AVA Software itself for further details.

    How do I set up device limits in AVA?

    Device limits are one type of safety settings in AVA.   (Please see the separate FAQ entry for an overview of AVA safety features.)

    Device limits restrict what each device (piece of equipment) can be set to (the maximum and minimum setpoints it can be sent from either the Apparatus or Schedule windows).

    You set up global device limits for each of your devices (pieces of equipment) in the AVA Apparatus window:

    1. When you add a new device to the Apparatus window, it's properties box will appear.  You can also click on existing devices in the Apparatus window to bring up the properties box.
    2. In the device properties box, you will see a 'Device Limits and Settings' section at the bottom.  This is where you enter the device limits.

    It is very important (for safety) to set device limits appropriate for your particular device.  For circulators (thermoregulators), you need to consider the thermal fluid you are using in addition to the model itself.  For more information, search for 'Device Limits' in the help pages accessed via the AVA Software itself (which is free to download in demo version).

    The Findenser literature says, 'operating temperature range: 0°C to 60°C'. What does this mean?
    This is referring to the environmental conditions of the whole Findenser unit, considering what the internal parts can withstand (so is not referring to chemistry applications / solvent boiling points etc.).

    You should not exceed 60°C when oven drying (or 50°C if cleaning in a dishwasher).  This is because high temperatures can weaken the seals etc., and lead to product damage/failure.
     
    The minimum of 0°C is because the Findenser contains water (as heat transfer fluid) sealed in between the glass body and finned aluminium jacket.  If the Findenser gets cold enough, the water inside Findenser could freeze and expand.  To prevent any risk of internal damage, Findenser should not be exposed to freezing temperatures (e.g. left outside in a vehicle on a cold night).
     
    For more information, please refer to the Findenser instructions and website FAQs.
    How do I create a service package (data for troubleshooting) on my Huber?

    Our Service (or Technical Support) team may ask you to send a service package from your Huber for us to analyse.  To do this:

    1. On the Pilot ONE control panel, press Menu, then Service, and then Service Data Recorder.
    2. You will be asked for a USB stick; put the USB stick into the port on the top of Pilot ONE.
    3. Press Service Data Recorder again.  A new window 'Start Recorder' will appear; press OK to start the recording.
    4. You will see a window with the message: 'Note: recorder has been started, click OK'.  Once you press OK, it will drop back to the Service menu, and recording takes place in the background.
    5. You can go back to the Home page; at the bottom of the display, above the Menu bar, there will be a message in red: 'USB-stick in use. Do not remove'.
    6. When you have finished the logging, i.e. replicated the fault conditions, you can stop the recorder (steps below).
    7. Press Menu, then Service, and then Service Data Recorder.
    8. A new window 'Stop Recorder' will appear; press OK to stop the recording.
    9. Message -4249: Process data recording has finished recording, USB stick can be removed'; press OK.
    10. Send the package from the USB stick to us service@radleys.co.uk and we will investigate.
    I can run my experiment in demo mode but not for real when I select the level - I get an error message mentioning the licence. What's wrong?

    In demo mode (which is available in AVA whether you have purchased a licence or not), you are able to use all of the possible zones (pale grey boxes) in the Apparatus window to add all of the possible devices.  This means you can trial the full functionality of AVA.

    However, to control real devices you must have purchased an AVA licence of the relevant level:

    • To run a stirring hotplate you need level 1
    • To run a overhead stirrer you need level 2
    • To run a circulator you need level 3
    • To run other devices such as pumps, balances or pH meters/sensors you need level 4.

    You should remove the device(s) that require a higher licence level, purchase the required licence level, or run in demo mode.

    N.B. A temperature probe can be used by all levels, but only when (in AVA Software) connected directly to the circulator or stirring hotplate, or when added to the temperature probe zone (pale grey box) top left of the Apparatus window.  Any temperature probes added using the miscellaneous zone (top right grey box) would require a level 4 licence.

    How do I save my experiment in AVA? How do I change the save settings?
    AVA automatically saves all the information from your experiment (Apparatus, Schedule, and data in graphs etc.) together in an AVA experiment file (with an .exp extension).

    By default, in the AVA software, a pop-up will appear prompting you to save as a new file, where you can approve or write a file name, and view or change the file location.  (The default save location on your PC is Documents > AVA.)  Once you have pressed Save, AVA will then regularly autosave your experiment, so you don't need to keep manually saving it yourself.

    You can change the logging/saving interval, and the location on your PC where the experiment files are saved, in the AVA software by selecting the File tab, then Settings (from the options on the left), then the General Settings tab.  There you can also tick the box for automatically generated file names (e.g. Experiment1) to be used without giving you the pop-up box described above.
    What are end conditions within the AVA Schedule?

    Each step in the Schedule has one or more end conditions that it must complete before AVA moves on to the next step in the Schedule.

    To view or edit the end conditions for a step, click on the step in the Schedule to see the step properties, and then press the down arrow next to 'End Conditions' to expand.

    There are three types of end conditions:

    1. Duration (time period)

    All steps will have this as an end condition.  The step needs to have been active for the specified time before it will be completed.

    2. Set value

    This optional end condition refers to the value set for that specific step, e.g. a circulator is set to achieve a reaction temperature of 50°C, or an overhead stirrer is set to 200 rpm.  If the 'Duration and set value achieved' box is ticked in the step properties, then the step will only move on when both the set time has elapsed and the set value of the step has been achieved.  Depending on the type of device, this box may be ticked as default (e.g. it is ticked as default for circulators but not for overhead stirrers).

    3. Another sensor value 

    This alternative optional end condition is used if you want a different measured value (can be a different device) to determine the end of the step (in addition to the time, as always).  In the step properties, if you tick the box 'Duration and another sensor value reached', you can specify what you want this to be.

    The AVA Schedule shows as 'waiting for end condition' - what does this mean?
    Each step on the Schedule has one or more end conditions that it must complete before AVA moves on to the next step in the Schedule.

    If the duration (time period) of a step has been completed but an additional end condition has not been reached, the whole Schedule (all current steps) will pause and the 'waiting for end condition' message will display while it is waiting for the end condition to be achieved.

    Different parallel steps (steps for different devices but happening at the same time) may have linked end conditions, indicated on the Schedule by a vertical black line with black triangles top and bottom.  The end conditions of all steps ending at this point must be completed before AVA moves on to the next step.

    If you don't want to wait for all the end conditions (or the duration) to be fulfilled, you can force AVA to move on to the next step by pressing the skip step button (to the right of the play button in the Schedule window).
    The data I exported to CSV is not displaying correctly in Excel - how can I fix this?
    AVA uses commas to separate data into columns. If the language setting on your computer is set to use a decimal place as a separator, meaning the data columns are not separated out correctly when you open the CSV file, you will need to change a setting within Excel. 

    In Excel, select the first column of reaction data (not the time), and then go to Data, Text to Columns, and set Delimiter to be a Comma.
    What hardware do I need to purchase to use AVA?

    If you only want to use AVA in demonstration mode, then all you need is a laptop/computer to download AVA Software onto.

    If you want to use AVA to control real devices, you will also need one or more Data Hubs, correct RS232 cables to connect the Data Hub(s) to the devices, an Ethernet Switch if you are using multiple Data Hubs and of course the devices themselves if you do not currently have them.

    • RR20200 Data Hub 4 Port and RR20202 Data Hub 2 Port

    Available with different plug options) include the Ethernet cables needed to connect the Data Hub to the PC or the Ethernet Switch.

    • RR20454 Ethernet Switch

    Required if you want to connect multiple Data Hubs to the PC. (You would use multiple Data Hubs if you have more devices than RS232 ports on the Data Hub.)

    You will need the correct RS232 cable to connect each device to the Data Hub.  For example, for Radleys Carousel Advanced Stirring Hotplate and RS50 and RS100 Overhead Stirrers, it is RR91234 RS232 Interface Cable - 15 Pin to 9 Pin.  If the device is not one supplied by Radleys, the manufacturer should be able to advise you on the correct RS232 cable.

    • Automation modules

    For example, RR20500 Gravimetric Additions Module, contain devices compatible with AVA plus accessories such as the correct RS232 cables. Please see our website or the AVA leaflet for more details.

    Which devices (equipment/apparatus) can I use with AVA?
    AVA Software is compatible with a wide range of devices with RS232 ports.

    To review our current list of compatible devices, in the AVA help pages, accessed via AVA Software (which is free to download to use in demonstration mode here), search for 'Device Driver Information' and select the first result.

    If you would like to use AVA with an RS232 device not on the list, we may be able to create a driver for it (part number RR20217: Driver Configuration Service).  Please send us full details of the device, including an instruction manual, to review.

    If the device does not have an RS232 port (interface), it cannot be used with AVA.
    There are short steps on the Schedule I can't see properly or at all - what can I do?
    You can zoom into (and out of) the Schedule by using the zoom bar at the bottom right of the Schedule window.

    Zoom in and you should be able to see the short steps you have created (typically by changing values in the Apparatus window).

    In the Results window (next to Apparatus) you can also select the Event Log tab to view a complete list of all steps that have occurred, regardless of how short they were.

    You may also want to zoom into the Schedule to make it easier for you to create short steps there.
    I have purchased an AVA licence. Will it expire?
    No, your AVA licence will not expire, so you will always be able to control real devices.

    However, active AVA Care is required in order to have access to the latest release version of AVA, so we recommend you renew your AVA Care when it expires (one year from purchase).
    I've downloaded AVA for free. What can I do in demo mode?
    AVA Software is available to download for free to trial in demonstration mode.

    You can use demo mode to explore AVA and test it with virtual devices.  Demo mode is the equivalent to a level 4 AVA licence - you have access to all types of equipment.

    You can set up equipment in the Apparatus window; view, edit or create a Schedule; view and edit graphs of simulated data; generate and analyse reports - basically everything other than running real devices!

    It's really quick and easy to get started - you don't need to connect or configure any equipment.

    Demo mode is still available after you purchase an AVA licence.
    How do I edit the graphs I view in AVA?
    In the Results window (next to Apparatus), you can have up to four graphs.

    Click on the Graph Settings tab to customise which data appears on each graph.

    To zoom into a graph, hold down the left mouse button and drag to define a sub-region. The graph rescales to show only the zoomed-in area.

    To zoom out again, right-click on the graph and select 'Zoom out'.

    (Please note, graphs will always appear in the RTF report zoomed out.)

    For further details, please see the AVA help pages (accessed via the AVA software).
    How do I generate reports and export data from AVA?

    It's easy to produce documents of your experiment details and results using AVA, for you to view and edit outside of the AVA software.

    In the AVA software, click on the Reporting tab.  There you can generate two different data documents.

    • A Rich Text Format (RTF) document that can be viewed and edited in programs such as Microsoft Word.  Use the tick boxes on the left to choose what is included in your report (out of Apparatus, Schedule, graphs, event log and summary).  You can press the Preview button to preview your report.  Press the Save Report button to save the report document on your computer.
    • Data in a CSV file that can be viewed and edited in programs like Microsoft Excel.  It will include reaction data and the event log.  Press the Export Results button to create this document.
    Can I create a ramp using the AVA Apparatus control mode?
    No, it is not possible to set a ramp in the Apparatus window, only fixed setpoints.  The Apparatus control mode is direct control, like physically turning the dial on a device.

    Nonetheless, you can create and run ramps in AVA using the Schedule window.
    My devices look like they are running in AVA, but they're not physically running - what am I doing wrong?
    Even if you have purchased a licence to run real devices, check whether AVA is currently in demo mode.  Look at the top right of the AVA software window - is 'Demo' highlighted in orange?  If so, select the level you have purchased instead (next to 'Demo') to move out of demo mode and run your devices.
    How/where do I add a Pt100 temperature probe in my AVA system?

    There are a number of ways you can add a Pt100 temperature probe, normally used with AVA to automate a circulator (thermoregulator, e.g. Huber).

    Connection to circulator and PID control via circulator - recommended


    Physically connect the Pt100 probe to the circulator. In the AVA Apparatus window, add a circulator, and in its settings, for 'External temperature probe connected to circulator?', select 'Yes'; the temperature probe will now be shown in AVA.  Tr (controlling the temperature of the reactor via the external probe) is now possible.  The circulator itself will be responsible for the PID control.

    Connection to Data Hub and PID control via AVA


    You can use this option if your circulator does not have a socket for a temperature probe.

    Physically connect the Pt100 to the Data Hub.  In the AVA Apparatus window, add a circulator, and in its settings, for 'External temperature probe connected to circulator?', select 'No'; then click on the pale grey outline of a temperature probe in the reactor and add a temperature probe.  Tr (controlling the temperature of the reactor via the external probe) is now possible.  However, rather than the circulator being responsible for its own PID, the AVA software will control it.

    Additional temperature probe just for monitoring


    You could do this if you want to monitor another temperature probe (not related to control of the circulator), such as one for a reflux divider; you can use its reading for a step override, for example.

    Physically connect the Pt100 to the Data Hub. In the AVA Apparatus window, use the top left zone (pale grey box) to add one temperature probe. (It is also possible to use the top right zone to add further additional temperature probes like this, if you have AVA level 4.)
    Can you provide an overview on how to download, install and set up AVA?
    Our AVA 'Quick Start Guide' gives you a good overview of the process.  You can download it here.

    Once you have downloaded the AVA software itself (demonstration version for free), you can also consult the 'Setup Guide' within the AVA help pages.
    Can I use AVA with Reactor-Ready Duo?

    Yes, AVA has been designed so it can be used with Reactor-Ready Duo.

    There are three possible methods to choose from, depending on the kind of control you require:

    1. Both sides of Reactor-Ready Duo in the same tab

    Create a new experiment using the Reactor-Ready Duo icon (Apparatus background/setup), so you have the Reactor-Ready Duo in one reaction tab.  You will then configure, control and monitor all the equipment together as one reaction system in the one tab.  With this configuration the same control mode has to be used for both sides of the Reactor-Ready Duo - all devices must be either controlled from the Apparatus window or via the Schedule.

    2. Each side of Reactor-Ready Duo in its own tab

    To enable you to control the two sides of the Reactor-Ready Duo more independently, each vessel of the Reactor-Ready Duo can be configured within its own reaction tab. To do this, create a new experiment selecting two Reactor-Ready icons.  This will create two reaction tabs, one for each side of the Reactor-Ready Duo.  (An alternative method is to create and configure one tab with the Reactor-Ready background, and then copy this tab.)  Each tab can be configured and controlled separately using a mixture of control modes (Apparatus or Schedule).  However, please note, AVA will initiate communication with all devices (both tabs) as soon as you start anything running (so they all must be set up correctly and switched on before starting); furthermore, once a reaction is running, it is not possible to add any more devices to either of the reaction tabs.  Furthermore, data from both tabs will be recorded together as one file.

    3. Each side of the Reactor-Ready Duo in its own instance of AVA

    For true independent control of the two sides of the Reactor-Ready Duo, you can open another instance (a second application window) of AVA.  Create a new experiment selecting one Reactor-Ready icon, and then open AVA software a second time (a new window of AVA), and then create a new experiment there with the Reactor-Ready icon.  The two AVA windows can be positioned next to each other so that both systems can be viewed at the same time.  Using a second instance means you can configure devices for one side whilst the other side/instance is running, as the data etc. is in a separate file.

    What is longest time I can run AVA for?
    The amount of time AVA can be run continuously for depends on factors such as the number of devices being controlled and the specification of the computer being used.  We would recommend that the maximum duration that AVA controls equipment continuously 
    for is limited to one week (7 x 24 hours).
    How many RS232 devices can be controlled per Data Hub / AVA software instance?
    The Data Hub is available with 2 or 4 RS232 ports.

    Up to 4 Data Hubs can be configured per AVA software instance.

    Therefore, you can have up to 16 RS232 devices (4 x 4) per instance of AVA.

    This is the maximum recommended number of devices for AVA; this is what we have tested up to.
    How can I ensure AVA installs successfully?
    To install AVA, you must have full administrative rights on your computer.  If you do not, it is likely that a CodeMeter error message will occur and the installation will not complete. Contact your IT department to request full administrative rights on the computer.
    Are there any AVA tutorial videos I can watch?

    Yes

    • Getting started
    • Manual control of devices
    • Create an experimental Schedule
    • Used advanced Schedule features

    To access these, in your downloaded AVA Software (which is free to download to use in demonstration mode)

    • Go to the File tab
    • Select Help from the list on the left
    • Then select 'Video tutorials: Watch a selection of video tutorials' button on the right.

    The video tutorials can also be accessed via the AVA Help pages.

    Where can I find more AVA technical information? How can I access the AVA help pages?

    For more information on using AVA, please refer to the AVA help pages, which are accessed via the AVA software itself.

    Once you have downloaded and opened AVA (which is free to download to use in demonstration mode), under the File tab, when you select Help in the list on the left, the first option on the right will be 'Click here to search the help pages'.

    The help pages are easy to navigate, with clear sections, hyperlinks to related pages, and a search box.  They include:

    • Additional FAQs
    • Video tutorials
    • Glossary
    • Tables explaining error messages and how they can be resolved.

    The AVA help pages are your key resource, in place of an instruction manual.

    Are there any example experiment files for AVA?
    Yes, there are examples (with everything set up in the Apparatus and Schedule window, ready to run in demo mode) for you to refer to.

    To view the examples, in the AVA software you have downloaded (which is free to download to use in demonstration mode), go to File, Open, and then C:\Radleys\AVA\Examples and select the example you are interested in.

    Once you have opened an example file and then closed AVA, when you reopen AVA the example will appear in the Recent section (File tab, then Recent).  You can press the star button next to the example to save it as a favourite (so it will stay in the Recent section for easy reference in future).
    What is included in the AVA Care support package? How can I renew it?
    Each purchase of AVA Software or an AVA level upgrade comes with one year's free AVA Care.

    During the AVA Care support period, you can download software updates such as any driver updates for new devices, continuing compatibility with Microsoft operating system, and other maintenance releases.  It also gives you access to full technical support for any queries you may have.

    To check the current status of AVA Care, in the AVA Software, browse to the File tab and select Help. The start and expiry dates are listed for the AVA Care in the 'Licensing' section.

    If your AVA Care Support is about to expire, you can purchase a renewal of AVA Care; please contact Radleys or your local distributor for a quotation.
    How do I activate my AVA software licence?
    Within the AVA Help pages accessed via the AVA Software you have downloaded, navigate to the 'Activate Licence' page (e.g. by searching for 'Activate Licence' in the search box at the top right of the help pages) for a full guide to activating your licence.

    Make sure you activate the licence on the computer you will be using AVA on.  You should be logged in with full administrative rights when activating a licence.
    How many levels are there for AVA, and what is included with each level?

    AVA has four licence levels to suit your application and budget.  As the level number increases, additional types of equipment can be controlled.  You can upgrade to a higher level if your needs change.

    • AVA Level 1 can control stirring hotplates.
    • AVA Level 2 can control stirring hotplates and overhead stirrers. 
    • AVA Level 3 can control stirring hotplates, overhead stirrers and circulators (thermoregulators).
    • AVA Level 4 can control all the equipment from level 3, plus devices such as pumps, balances, pH meters, and vacuum controllers.
    How much does AVA cost?

    AVA Software can be downloaded to try for free from the Radleys website here.  By default, it operates in demonstration mode, to allow the capabilities of the software to be explored, but with control of simulated (virtual) devices only.

    To purchase (or upgrade) an AVA licence so you can control real devices, please contact Radleys or your local distributor for a quotation.

    AVA has four levels to suit your application and budget.  You can upgrade to a higher level if your needs change.
    I need a central support rod for my StarFish system. What is the part number?

    We supply rods to screw into the StarFish base plate and provide a support for water and gas/vacuum manifolds and clamps for condensers and flasks.

    We offer you the option of:

    • RR95665: 650 mm Rod - this is the standard length and is lower cost.
    • RR95666: 650 mm Split Rod - this two-piece rod has a slightly higher price, but gives you the flexibility to use a half-size rod for shorter systems.
    How do I add a Com.G@te to my existing Huber unit?

    External Com.G@te (part number HB6915)

    Huber external Com.G@te HB6915
     






    You could either connect it with a 3 m cable (part number HB16160), or alternatively use a shorter cable and a bracket to mount it on the unit (different part numbers for different Huber models).

    Internal Com.G@te (part number HB31217)

    Huber internal Com.G@te HB31217
     






    Remove the RS232 plate from the Huber unit (4 screws), and disconnect the cable on the back.  There is another cable inside (which may be slightly hidden; it's labelled -WVL3) that connects to the back of the internal Com.G@te plate.
    What is a Com.G@te?

    A Com.G@te is an optional accessory for Huber units with Pilot ONE.

    Depending on the model of your Huber unit, you would use either external Com.G@te (part number HB6915) or the the internal Com.G@te (part number HB31217).

    Huber Com.G@tes

















    The Com.G@tes provide the following interfaces:

    • Analogue interface (AIF) for 4-20 mA communication
    • POKO (volt-free contact / floating contact)
    • ECS (external control signal)
    • RS232/RS485 (serial)
    • The external Com.G@te also has a level interface (to connect an external float switch, for monitoring the level of an externally closed application).

    These are in addition to any interfaces already on the Huber unit.  A Com.G@te is always required if you need an analogue interface.

    What is a Huber Pilot ONE E-grade? How do I upgrade it?
    Huber Pilot ONE controllers come with 3 possible levels of software, which are referred to as E-grades.

    Unistats, as the most advanced type of Huber units, come with the highest level of Pilot ONE software as standard, which is the ‘Professional’ E-grade.

    Open bath units, such as Ministats, are more basic models.  Those with Pilot ONE controllers only come with the lowest level of software, which is the ‘Basic’ E-grade.
     

    Higher E-grades have more features available.  You can purchase an upgrade code if you want to move up to a higher E-grade to gain additional features.  For example, please see the separate FAQ entry 'Why would I need HB9495 Basic to Exclusive Upgrade?' for more information on the most common upgrade.

    The part numbers for the upgrades are:

    • HB9495: Upgrade to Exclusive
    • HB9496: Upgrade to Professional

    If you would like to upgrade an existing Huber unit, please let us know the serial number of your Huber unit, and we can issue a code.

    To apply an E-grade, in the Pilot ONE controller, you should navigate: Menu > System Settings > E-Grade > Activate Packages > select the package number (e.g. 2 Exclusive), and then enter the activation code supplied.

    To check your current E-grade, in the Pilot ONE controller, go to Menu > System Settings > E-Grade > Activated Packages.

    Can a new Huber with Pilot ONE or MPC plus be controlled/monitored by LabVIEW or MATLAB?
    Yes, your new Huber is compatible with LabVIEW and with MATLAB, via RS232 communication (serial interface).

    You can connect the Huber to a computer using the appropriate RS232 cable (either HB55018, with a 15-pin end for the Huber, or HB6146, with a 9-pin end for the Huber - let us know if you need help determining which would be suitable).

    Huber RS232 commands are detailed here for PB commands (recommended),
    or here for PP and LAI commands.
    Can a Huber unit with Pilot ONE controller be controlled by a PLC via an AIF (analogue interface), and if so, how?
    You can control a new Huber unit with Pilot ONE controller via a PLC/DCS etc.

    There are different methods of communication possible, including 4-20 mA using an analogue interface (AIF).  The 4-20 mA communication can be used to send signals to the Huber unit (control it) in addition to receive signals (monitor it).  

    The analogue interface has one programmable input channel (e.g. for setpoint), and three output channels (setpoint, external temperature, and programmable).  If you want to control multiple parameters, we would advise you consider another method of communication.

    You would need to purchase an Com.G@te (optional accessory) to have an analogue interface.  Please search the FAQs for further details of the Com.G@te.

    We can supply a cable for connecting to the analogue interface on the Com.G@te, part number HB9353.  This has an open end, for wiring into your application.

    For information on the RS232 and Ethernet options for new Huber units with Pilot ONE, please refer to the separate FAQ entries.

    For older Huber models, please contact us with the serial number of your unit, and we can advise on your options.
    Can a Huber unit with Pilot ONE controller be controlled by a PLC via RS232, and if so, how?

    You can control a new Huber unit with Pilot ONE controller via a PLC/DCS etc.
     
    It is possible to send setpoint commands and receive temperature readings, and also stop the Huber if a particular temperature is exceeded.

    There are different methods of communication available, but RS232 is commonly used. You can refer to the Huber data communications manuals - PB commands (recommended) or PP and LAI commands (older).

    The RS232 cable for new Unistats with Pilot ONE is HB55018 (with a 15-pin end for connecting to the Huber).  For other units, a 9-pin RS232 cable is offered, part number HB6146.  Please feel free to ask if you have any queries.

    For information on the Ethernet and AIF (4-20 mA) options for new Huber units with Pilot ONE, please refer to the separate FAQ entries.

    For older Huber models, please contact us with the serial number of your unit, and we can advise on your options.

    Can Findenser be stored at 0°C or lower?
    Findenser should not be exposed to temperatures around/below 0˚C.

    Findenser is composed of an internal glass condenser and an external finned aluminium jacket, between which a small amount of water is permanently sealed (for heat transfer).

    Since water freezes at 0°C, if it gets cold enough the water inside Findenser could freeze - expand and cause internal damage to the Findenser.

    To prevent any risk of damage, please do not leave Findenser inside a vehicle if it may be exposed to freezing temperatures.
    When do I need a size adapter when connecting a circulator to my jacketed lab reactor?

    Our standard jacketed lab reactors have the following connections for Huber (or other circulator) hoses:

    • Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo: M24 male
    • Reactor-Ready Pilot: M30 male
    • Lara (current model): M24 male
    • Lara (older version): M16 male

    Huber units (or other circulators) have fittings for connecting to the hoses (referred to as pump connections) of a particular size for that Huber model, as stated in its technical data, e.g. M24, M30 or M16. These are always male.

    If your jacketed lab reactor has the same size fittings as your Huber unit (e.g. they are both M24), you can use a hose of that size (M24 in this case), and no size adapters are required. (Huber hoses are always female at both ends.)

    If your jacketed lab reactor has different size connections to your Huber (e.g. Reactor-Ready is M24 and your Huber is a Petite Fleur, which is M16), you could potentially use a hose of either size (e.g. M16), but you will need a size adapter where the size changes (in this example, between the M24 Reactor-Ready and the M16 hose).

    The descriptions of size adapters match the adapters themselves, not what they connect to. You always need male joining to female. For example, to connect M24 male Reactor-Ready to a M16 female hose, you need an M24 female to an M16 male adapter, part number HB6724.

    There are a range of size adapters listed in the Huber catalogue.

    Please contact us if you require further assistance.

    N.B. The full names of these M fittings are:

    • M16x1 or M16/1
    • M24x1.5 or M24/1.5
    • M30x1.5 or M30/1.5
    They have been abbreviated in this post for clarity. The short names are commonly used.
    Can you supply a custom Heat-On block or StarFish MonoBlock or PolyBlock?
    It's best to use a standard Heat-On block or StarFish MonoBlock or PolyBlock if possible, as that would be the cheapest and quickest option for you.  You may wish to purchase replacement glassware if required.

    However, we can supply custom if needed.  If you would like a quotation, please email us with your full specifications, including quantity required.  Please also send us samples of the glassware you want to use with it.
    What cable do I need to connect my Heidolph RZR Stirrer to a Data Hub and software system?

    Your stirrer motor needs to have an RS232 port (interface). You will need an RS232 cable to connect it to to an RS232 port on the Data Hub.

    There are different types of RS232 cables. It is vital you use the right one for your specific device.

    For Heidolph RZR Stirrers, the correct RS232 cable is:

    • 14-007-045-17: Interface Cable RS232
    What cable do I need to connect my Radleys RS Overhead Stirrer to a Data Hub and software system?
    Your stirrer motor needs to have an RS232 port (interface).  You will need an RS232 cable to connect it to to an RS232 port on the Data Hub.

    There are different types of RS232 cables.  It is vital you use the right one for your specific device.
     

    For Radleys RS Overhead Stirrers, the correct RS232 cable is:

    • RR91234: RS232 Interface Cable - 15 Pin to 9 Pin
    What does 'RE' mean in a stirring bar description? What are rare earth stirring bars?
    'RE' in the product name of a magnetic stirring bar stands for rare earth.  Rare earth stirring bars are usually identified by a (chemically inert) black spot on the stirring bar.

    Rare earth elliptical stirring bar



    Rare earth magnets provide significantly increased magnetic strength compared to standard magnets - stronger attraction between the stirring bar and the hotplate.  They are useful for stirring viscous samples.

    Rare earth magnets are also almost completely resistant to demagnetisation, in contrast to standard stirring bars, which lose their magnetism with time and use and so require regular replacement.
    Can I use the Pilot ONE controller away from the Huber unit?
    It is not possible to take the Pilot ONE control panel off the Huber unit, take it away separately to program or test it, and then put it back on the Huber unit.  The Pilot ONE controller needs to be connected to the Huber unit to use it.

    Nonetheless, the Pilot ONE controller can be positioned some distance away from the Huber unit but still with the two connected.  We refer to this as using the Pilot ONE as a remote control.  

    Huber Pilot ONE lifted out
















    The Pilot ONE controller lifts out, and then you can access the connection ports on the Pilot ONE and the Huber unit to connect up with a (specific) cable.  The standard length is 3 m (part number HB16160), but longer, custom lengths can be supplied if required (recommended maximum 25 m).  We also offer a wall bracket (part number HB9493) and a table stand (part number HB9494), which you can use to fix the control panel in a convenient location.

    HB9493 Huber wall bracket and HB9494 table stand for Pilot ONE controller
    I have a stuck glass joint. What can I do?
    This is a general laboratory issue.

    Safe ways of separating stuck joints are soaking the joints, using a sonicator / ultrasonic cleaner, using a solvent to dissolve chemical residue, or applying heat.  You should not use force (e.g. do not try to loosen the joint by knocking the glassware on the edge of the bench), because this is likely to lead to breakage, and is unsafe.

    Some chemists grease glass joints to act against joints sticking, if this is suitable for their chemistry/application.

    Here at Radleys, we tend to use Rodaviss joints (the red cap and screw thread etc.), because their special design makes it easier to separate joints compared to standard ground glass joints.

    The wide neck flask design we offer as an option for the Carousel 6 Plus and Tornado uses a flat flange rather than a glass joint, so that also helps prevent this issue.

    Please note, glass is relatively fragile (even laboratory borosilicate glass 3.3), and is not covered by warranty.
    What are the minimum/maximum working volumes of each Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Pilot or Lara vessel?

    Our general guidelines are that: 

    • The maximum working volume is about 10% higher than the nominal volume (the one stated in the vessel description)
    • The minimum working volume is around 20% of the maximum volume

    Please note, if you want to work at a range of volumes, we would advise that you purchase a range of vessel kits as appropriate for those volumes.  Each vessel kit contains a Pt100 temperature probe and stirrer shaft/rotor of a suitable size for that vessel.

    It’s quick and easy to swap vessels in Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo, Reactor-Ready Pilot and Lara, unlike traditional jacketed lab reactors - so you do not need to stick with one vessel per reaction system.

    What is the part number for a replacement piston for my jacketed lab reactor?
    The part numbers and descriptions for our current pistons are as follows:

    Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara pistons are 15 mm.

    • RR161100: Piston 15 mm for Single Jacketed Vessel
    • RR166055: Piston 15 mm for Vacuum Jacketed Vessel 

    Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara pistons - RR161100 and RR166055


















    Reactor-Ready Pilot pistons are 25 mm.

    • RR166070: Piston 25 mm for Single & Vacuum Jacketed Vessel

    Reactor-Ready Pilot piston - RR166070 Piston 25 mm for Single & Vacuum Jacketed Vessel










    The piston O-rings are also available separately (as is the black plastic ring holding the handle on).

    Can I buy a lid for my jacketed lab reactor with A joints instead of B joints?

    Yes, we offer US versions of all our lids, where most of the standard B joint lid ports have been replaced with A joint lid ports:

    For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo:

    • RR136000/US: 5 Neck Lid DN100 - 1 x A19, 1 x B24, 2 x A24, 1 x A29

    For Reactor-Ready Pilot (choice of 2):

    • RR236000/US: 6 Neck Lid DN200 - 1 x A19, 1 x A24, 1 x A29, 1 x B34, 1 x A34, 1 x B45
    • RR236002/US: 7 Neck Lid DN200 - 1 x A19, 1 x A24, 1 x A29, 1 x B34, 2 x A34, 1 x A45

    For Lara:

    • LR140025/US: Lara 5 Neck Lid DN100 - 1 x A19, 1 x B24, 2 x A24, 1 x A29

    This means you can use glassware accessories with A joints (e.g. condensers) that you may have.

    You will see above that one of the lid ports in each lid remains a B joint.  This is the central lid port, which is always used for a Radleys stirrer guide, which fits in a B24 joint (for Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara) or a B34 joint (for Reactor-Ready Pilot).

    Can you supply a custom lid for my jacketed lab reactor?
    The standard lids for our reaction systems are as follows (with US versions of each lid, with A joints, also available - see separate FAQ entry):

    For Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo:

    • RR136000: 5 Neck Lid DN100 - 1 x B19, 2 x B24, 1 x B29, 1 x B34

    For Reactor-Ready Pilot (choice of 2):

    • RR236000: 6 Neck Lid DN200 - 1 x B19, 1 x B24, 1 x B29, 2 x B34, 1 x B45
    • RR236002: 7 Neck Lid DN200 - 1 x B19, 1 x B24, 1 x B29, 3 x B34, 1 x B45

    For Lara:

    • LR140025: Lara 5 Neck Lid DN100 - 1 x B19, 2 x B24, 1 x B29, 1 x B34
     
    Our glassblowing workshop can make custom lids, but the diameter of each lid limits the number/size of necks (also called sockets or lid ports).  The central socket would need to remain the same, to fit the appropriate Radleys stirrer guide.

    If you think you need a custom lid, please contact us with full details of the number and size of sockets and why you think they are required - what equipment (glassware accessories) you will be using on the lid.  We will then be able to assess your requirements, and determine what we can offer you.  It may be that a standard lid would be suitable for you after all - for example, you can feed from two or three peristaltic pumps into one socket using an adapter, and an adapter for inert gas or vacuum typically fits on top of a condenser.

    A PTFE lid may also be a suitable option - see the separate FAQ entry, 'Can you supply PTFE lids for my jacketed lab reactor?'
    How can I improve the performance of my Findenser?

    If your Findenser is struggling to contain all the solvent in your application, it is most likely due to one or more of the following issues.

    Please carefully review the following information, and adjust your method where appropriate, in order to obtain optimal performance from your Findenser.

    Too much solvent

    • If a flask is too large or over-filled, the condensation load on the Findenser could exceed its ability to cool and condense effectively. In such circumstances, Findenser may not contain the solvent.
    • Working solvent volumes should be a maximum of half the flask volume, e.g. 5 ml in a 10 ml flask, or 1 L in a 2 L flask.
    • The maximum recommended solvent and flask volume for use with each type of Findenser is:
      • Standard (full-length) Findenser: maximum flask size 2 L, with maximum solvent volume 1 L
      • Findenser Mini: maximum flask size 250 ml, with maximum solvent volume 125 ml.

    Overheating or poorly regulated heating

    • There is no benefit to the chemistry in overheating the solvent as the chemistry cannot get any hotter than the solvent boiling point, no matter how high the temperature.  Overheating will simply generate more vapour, which could be beyond Findenser's capacity to condense.
    • The hotplate or block temperature should be no more than 20°C above solvent boiling point for high boiling point solvents (>80°C), or 10°C above boiling point for lower boiling point solvents (<80°C).
    • Where an oil bath is used, the hotplate or oil bath temperature should be no more than 10°C above the boiling point of solvent for high boiling point solvents (>80°C), or no more than 5°C above boiling point for lower boiling point solvents (<80°C).
    • In all cases, extra care should be taken if the heating control is not fully calibrated, or does not have precise settings.

    Inert gas flow encouraging evaporation

    • A flow of inert gas (e.g. nitrogen) through the flask can encourage evaporation and reduce performance of the Findenser.
    • If inert gas is required it should be introduced through the top joint of the Findenser, with all flask ports sealed (using a suitable bubbler to avoid build-up of pressure) and not through a flask sidearm or joint at the bottom of the Findenser. Gas flow should be kept to a minimum.

    Ambient temperature too similar to solvent boiling point temperature

    • Because Findenser uses air to cool and dissipate heat, it requires the ambient air temperature (room temperature) to be significantly cooler than the boiling temperature.  
    • At relatively high ambient temperatures, there may be insufficient air cooling for the heat from the Findenser fins to be effectively dissipated, which may result in Findenser not containing the solvent.
    • The performance in each case will depend on how different the ambient air temperature is from the boiling point temperature, so there should not be a problem with condensing high boiling point solvents.
    • To maximise performance, keep the lab cool if possible, and ensure there is sufficient airflow around the Findenser to enable effective heat dissipation.

    Very low boiling point solvent, e.g. diethyl ether

    • Some very low boiling solvents (particularly in large volumes) are just too difficult to condense with any kind of air condenser.  In such circumstances a water-cooled condenser may be the only option.
    • Findenser can cope with smaller volumes of diethyl ether (up to 100 ml in a 250 ml flask) with a hotplate / heating block accurately controlled at no more than 5°C above boiling point.
    What are B joints (B29, B24, B19 and B14 etc.)?
    B joints are standard joint sizes in the UK and many other countries.

    The full names of these joints are B29/32, B24/29, B19/26, and B14/23.  The first number is the outer diameter (OD) in mm at the widest part of the ground glass cone, which is the same as the internal diameter (ID) in mm at the widest part of the ground glass socket ('x' in the diagram below).  The second number is the length of the ground glass joint in mm ('y' below).

    Ground glass joint sizes










    They have a standard taper (1:10 – for every 10 mm down the cone/socket, the diameter gets smaller by 1 mm).

    The ‘B’ differentiates them from American ‘A’ joints, which have the same maximum diameter and taper but are longer – e.g. A29 is A29/42, and A24 is A24/40.

    B joints are also sometimes referred to as ‘NS’ joints instead, so you may be familiar with that term – e.g. B29 (B29/32) is the same as NS 29/32, and B24 (B24/29) is the same as NS 24/29.
    What is the maximum solvent boiling point for use with Findenser?
    Our R&D Laboratory have tested a wide range of common solvents, up to a boiling point of 155˚C.

    As we haven’t tested solvents with boiling points higher than 155˚C, we can’t make any guarantees that they would be suitable for Findenser, but we don’t foresee there to be any problems.

    It’s easier to condense high boiling point solvents than low boiling point solvents (as the higher the boiling point, the bigger the temperature difference between the vapour and room temperatures).  Therefore, performance with high boiling point solvents should be very good (and use with high boiling point solvents shouldn’t heat up the Findenser and weaken seals like you might expect).
    Is there any performance data for the Findenser Mini?
    Our R&D laboratory carried out extensive testing of the Findenser Mini prior to its launch.  However, we haven't currently published any data specific to the Findenser Mini.  

    There is example data for the original, full-length Findenser in the Findenser leaflet.  The performance when using Findenser Mini with an appropriate volume will be similar to that given in the leaflet for the original, full-size Findenser, e.g. it is suitable for the same solvents.  

    If you require any further information, please contact us.
    Can I use a Carousel 6 Plus or Carousel 12 Plus with corrosive chemicals? How can I reflux effectively?

    The Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus, like other Radleys equipment, have been designed to have good general chemical resistance.

    However, it is not possible for any equipment to be completely unaffected by all possible reaction conditions.  It is not feasible for our R&D Laboratory to test equipment with every possible chemical/concentration/application, so unfortunately we are unable to make guarantees regarding specific chemicals.

    We can provide information on the materials of the Carousels and give general advice, so that you can make an informed decision and reduce the risk/rate of any corrosion.

    The main materials that the chemicals in the flasks could come into contact with during use are:

    • Carousel 6 Plus flask and reflux tube, or Carousel 12 Plus tube – borosilicate glass 3.3
    • White cap – PTFE
    • Septa of any sidearms (Carousel 6 Plus) – PTFE face
    • O-rings within the PTFE caps and on the gas outlets of the reflux head (that the caps fit onto) – nitrile as standard, but also available in Viton
    • Septa (Suba-Seals) in the caps – silicone as standard, also available in Viton
    • Gas outlets of the reflux head (vapours should preferably not reach this far) – stainless steel 316
    • Reflux head (vapours shouldn’t reach this far) – main material aluminium, with silicone gasket

    You should consider the compatibility of these materials with the chemicals you want to use. If necessary, you can refer to chemical resistance tables online.

    If the alternative materials we offer are more compatible with your chemistry than the standard ones (the ones that come with the Carousel), you should purchase the alternatives for improved lifespan/performance of the parts in question.

    Please regularly check the condition of all the parts in the Carousel system, particularly the common consumables such as O-rings. If any part is damaged, it should be replaced as soon as possible to ensure there are no significant issues.

    It is important to use your Carousel according to our recommendations below, to reduce the risk/rate of any damage. The aim is for chemical vapours to be effectively condensed in the reflux tubes or Carousel 12 Plus tubes, by the cooling of the reflux head. We advise:

    • Always use a suitable cooling water supply, flowing through the reflux head. Ensure the temperature is appropriate, considering the boiling point of the chemicals being used. Use a chiller if needed.
    • Do not overheat. If you heat high above the boiling point, you could generate too much vapour for the reflux head to be able to condense. (There is no benefit to the chemistry in overheating; the chemistry cannot get any hotter than the boiling point of the solvent, no matter how high the temperature is set to.)
    • Do not overfill the flasks/tubes, as this too could lead to too much vapour being produced. 
    • For the Carousel 6 Plus, ensure the reflux inserts (the metal pieces you take out the reflux head to put the flasks in) are all inserted and properly in place.
    • Use an inert gas (typically a nitrogen blanket) if possible, not exceeding 1 psi (slight positive pressure).  This would help suppress the chemical vapours.
    • In all cases, particular care should be taken if the solvent has a low boiling point, or is corrosive.
    • You may need to experiment to work out the optimal conditions for a particular application.
    • Wipe off any spillages on the Carousel as soon as possible.
    In addition to this advice, we recommend that Carousel units are always operated within a fume hood, away from any potential sources of chemical vapours (such as open bottles of acid), to protect the outer surfaces of the Carousel from any damage from the surrounding environment.
    What is a simple way to record/view data from a Huber unit?
    You could use the USB port on a Pilot ONE controller to record temperature data onto a USB stick, which you could then edit/view in Microsoft Excel.  The E-grade 'Exclusive' (or 'Professional') is required for this function.  (You can refer to the separate FAQ entries for more information on E-grades.)

    Alternatively, SpyLight is basic Huber computer software that can be used for viewing/monitoring data.  You can download it onto your PC for free (at www.huber-online.com/en/download_software.aspx).  You would need an appropriate cable to connect the computer with SpyLight to the Huber unit.

    There are also other methods of communication to connect a Huber unit to a computer system, e.g. to send the Huber set points from a PLC.  Please see other FAQ entries for further details.
    Why would I use a displacement insert?

    Displacement inserts are often recommended for use with open bath Huber models (e.g. Ministats), when they are connected to a jacketed lab reactor (such as Reactor-Ready) as opposed to when placing items in the bath.

    Huber displacement inserts








    The purpose of the displacement insert is to take up some of the volume of the bath (in place of oil), reducing three potential issues to improve performance:

    • To change the vessel jacket temperature, the Huber needs to change the temperature of all the oil in the bath too, which takes time.  Reducing the amount of oil by using the displacement insert can enable faster temperature change.
    • Because the baths are open to atmosphere (exposed to oxygen and water vapour), rather than being a sealed system like Unistats, the oil is likely to degrade more quickly.  The displacement insert reduces exposure, so the oil can last longer.
    • Oil may overflow if it expands significantly.  Also, the larger the volume, the greater the oil will expand by when it is heated.  The displacement insert reduces the oil volume and hence amount of expansion, and also acts as a safe location for oil to expand into rather than overflowing from the bath.

    NB. Huber Unistats have a different, more advanced design than bath units. Unistats are hydraulically sealed, with a smaller internal volume.  Displacement inserts are not applicable.

    Why would I need HB9495 Basic to Exclusive Upgrade?
    Huber Pilot ONE controllers come with 3 possible levels of software, which are referred to as E-grades.

    Unistats, as the most advanced type of Huber units, come with the highest level of software as standard, which is the ‘Professional’ E-grade.

    Open bath units (such as Ministats) and chillers are more basic models.  Those with Pilot ONE controllers only come with the lowest level of software, which is the ‘Basic’ E-grade.

    A key feature is the ability to control the temperature in ‘process’ mode (i.e. controlling the temperature of the vessel contents, using the reading from the temperature probe in the vessel), as opposed to just ‘internal’ mode (i.e. controlling the temperature of the oil the Huber is flowing through the vessel jacket).  This feature is not available in the low ‘Basic’ software level, only the middle one ‘Exclusive’ and the highest one ‘Professional’.  Therefore, we advise customers purchasing a bath unit to use with a reaction system to purchase the HB9495 upgrade to take them from ‘Basic’ to ‘Exclusive’ E-grade, so they will be able to control by the temperature of the vessel contents.

    In addition, you need at least the 'Exclusive' E-grade be able to record data onto a USB stick, to have the ability to make programs and use ramps, and to be able to reduce the maximum heating power and hence current drawn.
    What is the difference between internal and process/external control when using a circulator?
    Internal (or jacket) temperature refers to the oil leaving the circulator to be circulated through the vessel jacket – it is inside the circulator, not inside the vessel.

    An external (or process, contents or reactor) temperature reading is from a temperature probe external to the circulator, typically a Pt100 in a Reactor-Ready vessel plugged into the circulator.

    Huber units with Pilot ONE controllers require at least the E-grade (software level) 'Exclusive' to have the option of control via the process temperature sensor rather than just the internal temperature sensor.
    Is the Carousel Temperature Controller compatible with my hotplate? Is it available?
    None of our current Carousel Stirring Hotplates can be used with a Carousel Temperature Controller, only a Pt1000 probe (optional – if solution control is required).

    The most recent Carousel Temperature Controller we offered was part number RR91210.  We can currently supply an equivalent controller (Heidolph EKT Hei-Con, part number 509-88000-00), but only as a spare part for customers with previous hotplate models that were compatible with RR91210 rather than a Pt1000.

    Carousel Temperature Controller and Heidolph EKT Hei-Con









    If you’re not sure whether a particular hotplate you have is compatible with a Carousel Temperature Controller or a Pt1000, check the socket on the hotplate - the Carousel Temperature Controller socket is 5-pin, whereas a Pt1000 socket is 4-pin, and the sticker should tell you which it is too - see below.

    Old hotplates - compatible with Carousel Temperature Controller (or Heidolph EKT Hei-Con)


    Carousel Temperature Controller socket - Carousel Stirring Hotplate













    Current hotplates - compatible with Pt1000


    Pt1000 socket - Carousel Stirring Hotplate

    What vacuum level can be achieved in Carousel 6 Plus or Carousel 12 Plus?
    Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus are suitable for use with vacuum, to remove air as part of creating an inert atmosphere.

    They are not designed to hold a full vacuum, or for reactions to be carried out under vacuum (as there is a risk that the vacuum would pull chemicals up through the Carousel reflux/inerting head and so damage it).

    We cannot guarantee what vacuum level could be achieved.  The vacuum obtained by each customer will depend on factors such as the condition of seals in the system, and the particular vacuum pump used.
    What is the maximum pressure of Carousel 6 Plus or Carousel 12 Plus?
    The Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus can be used with inert gas, but are not suitable for pressurised reactions.

    The Carousel PTFE caps and glassware are not rated for pressure.  Our guidelines are that the maximum pressure is 1 psi above atmospheric pressure, i.e. slight positive pressure, when you are using inert gas.  Keep the valves of the PTFE caps open when in use.

    If high pressure were applied, the silicone septa in the PTFE caps should be pushed out and allow venting.
    What vacuum level can be achieved in Radleys jacketed lab reactors?

    The vacuum obtained for a whole reaction system is typically approximately 10-50 mbar, although even better vacuum can be achieved – we have observed around 3-5 mbar in Reactor-Ready.

    The vacuum level that is obtained in a specific reaction system will depend on various factors, including:

    • The type of reaction system – Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo, Reactor-Ready Pilot and Lara have an advanced design with better sealing than other reaction systems, so particularly good vacuum can be achieved
    • Whether glass cone stoppers (optional accessories) are used to plug any unused lid ports (required for the best possible vacuum), rather than Rodaviss sealing caps
    • The particular vacuum pump used (considering the pump’s ultimate vacuum and speed etc.); also note that when a vacuum pump/tubing is new, you may need to run the vacuum for some hours before the best vacuum levels can be achieved
    • Whether there is any water (or other substance) in the system – vacuum can cause this to evaporate, increasing the pressure
    • The condition of all the seals/O-rings and piston – these are consumable parts and should be checked and replaced if required
    • The condition and position of other components such as stirrer guide, stirrer shaft and probes
    • Whether all joints are clean, assembled correctly and tight
    • Whether all valves are closed properly
    • Whether the vessel/lid clamp is tight enough
    • Whether vacuum grease (silicone grease) is used on joints
    • The stirring taking place (speed/viscosity etc.)
    • The temperature within the vessel
    • The reaction taking place within the vessel
    For details of our vacuum testing procedure, please refer to our technical bulletin 'TB 102 Reactor-Ready vacuum and pressure testing', available to download here.
    What is the maximum pressure of Radleys jacketed lab reactors?
    The maximum pressure of our glassware is 0.5 bar above atmospheric pressure (also known as 0.5 barg, or 1.5 bar absolute pressure).

    This means that Reactor-Ready and our other jacketed lab reactors can tolerate slight positive pressure, but are not suitable for pressurised reactions.

    When working with inert gas, we advise you use a gas bubbler (oil bubbler), to allow the pressure to escape while keeping air out.

    Limit the pressure of oil circulating through the vessel's jacket if required (depending on your circulator model) so 0.5 barg is not exceeded.
    Do Heat-On blocks nest (have one base block, and achieve smaller sizes by adding inserts and building up)?
    No, Heat-On blocks are stand-alone rather than requiring nesting.  This means you can carry out more reactions at once (use your different volume Heat-On blocks at the same time), and the heating is more efficient than if using nested inserts.
    Does Heat-On have handles?
    We offer optional, removable safety lifting handles (part number RR61080), which have a simple and secure mechanism that allows the user to quickly attach the handles and remove the Heat-On block (or Multi-Well Holder) from the heat source, even whilst it remains hot. 

    Heat-On handles









    Please check your laboratory safety health and safety policy.  Many laboratories do not permit the handling of hot liquids or objects and therefore the use of the optional handles may not be permitted.
    When should I use a Heat-On Multi-Well Holder?

    Heat-On Multi-Well Holder







    The Multi-Well Holder is designed secure Heat-On inserts to the hotplate.  Inserts are smaller than stand-alone blocks, and are available for small flasks and tubes/vials.

    Heat-On Multi-Well Holder with inserts









    We recommend that the Multi-Well Holder is used when working with Heat-On inserts, because it is safer since the insert is secured to the hotplate (less chance of being knocked off), and there could be improved heat transfer from the hotplate compared to using the inserts alone.  Furthermore, it has probe holes, while older inserts did not have them.

    However, you may choose to use inserts on hotplates without the Multi-Well Holder.

    My hotplate is 135 mm in diameter. Do I need an adapter to use Heat-On?
    Heat-On blocks have a 145 mm diameter recess in the base to locate onto the hotplate.

    If you have a 135 mm round hotplate, you have the option of purchasing an adapter plate (part number RR61085) if you would like Heat-On to fit more tightly onto your hotplate.

    RR61085 Heat-On adapter for 135 mm hotplate
    My hotplate is 145 mm in diameter. Will Heat-On fit?
    Yes, Heat-On is suitable for use with hotplates with a 145 mm diameter, such as Heidolph hotplates.   Heat-On blocks have a 145 mm diameter recess in the base to locate onto the hotplate.
    I have a square/rectangular hotplate – can I use Heat-On?

    Yes, you can.

    To secure Heat-On to square or rectangular hotplates, use RR61087 Heat-On Adapter Plate for Square Hotplates.

    RA17631co Sq AdapterPlate




    It has four sliding (adjustable) jaws that enable you to fit it onto your hotplate.  There is a circular protrusion on top that fits the recess in the bottom of Heat-On.  This means the Heat-On block is secure and there is good heat transfer between the hotplate and the Heat-On.

    RR61087 is suitable for hotplates from 140 x 140 mm to 200 x 200 mm.

    Heat-On square hotplate adapter
    Can I use all my glass flasks with Heat-On?
    As part of Heat-On product development, Radleys have evaluated flasks from a variety of glass manufacturers to ensure that Heat-On blocks will accept the widest possible range of sizes and styles.  However, because the tolerances on mass produced glassware can vary greatly, it is not possible to guarantee that all brands will fit.  Indeed, experience shows us that glassware from a single manufacturer may vary considerably in size and shape from batch to batch and also from item to item.  We therefore advise that customers pre-select appropriate sized glassware to use with Heat-On.

    Heat-On has a slightly narrower diameter at the top of the block well, to help stop oversized flasks from fitting through.  Of flasks that can be inserted into the Heat-On block, suitable flasks should sit at the bottom of the well, and be a loose fit in the well – able to spin freely in the Heat-On well, without catching or sticking on the sides of the well.  If the flask is catching or sticking, it may be misshapen, and may result in jamming or even cracking of the flask when the Heat-On block is cooling.  If the flask does not spin freely then it is unsuitable for use in the Heat-On and an alternative flask should be used.

    We can provide maximum flask outer diameter dimensions for specific Heat-On blocks; please contact us.
    Will Heat-On crack my flask?

    Heat-On has an advanced, proprietary design (shape) that means it does not have the same risk of shearing flasks as other companies’ blocks. 

    Heat-On’s proprietary design also means that flasks sit lower down in the block than other companies’ blocks, maximising the heated surface area, and meaning that if there ever was a break in the glass, the block can contain the contents, unlike competitor blocks.

    If used correctly (see below), flasks should not break in Heat-On.  The few reports we have received of flask breakages have been due to one or more of the factors below.

    Factors to consider:

    • Use suitable size/shape flasks
    • Ensure flasks are in good condition – not scratched, no hairline cracks or chips, and annealed during manufacture (purchased from a reputable supplier)
    • Ensure the glassware and Heat-On are clean – no chemicals/residue/grit between the two
    • Don’t pressurise flasks – don’t seal heated flasks closed (unless specifically designed for pressure)
    • Don’t use very large/heavy equipment set-ups above the Heat-On
    • Preferably load your glassware into the block when the block is at ambient (room temperature).  If this is not possible, at least ensure that flasks are removed at or above the temperature they were originally inserted – e.g. don’t heat up the Heat-On, then insert your flask, then allow the Heat-On to cool back down to below the temperature when the flask was added
    Is Heat-On chemically resistant?
    Anodised Heat-On blocks are resistant to the majority of solvents and splash resistant to dilute acids and alkalis at room temperature. The fluoropolymer coated Heat-On blocks offer superior resistant to the majority of solvents, acids and alkalis.

    However, it is important to clean off any chemical spills as soon as possible.  Be careful that there is not chemical spillage between the flask and the Heat-On.

    Extended exposure to acids or alkalis will attack the surface of the Heat-On blocks. The stronger the concentration and the longer the exposure time the higher the likelihood of damage and the greater the degree of any damage.  Heat will also speed up and intensify any attack.
    How do I choose between polymer-coated and anodised Heat-On?
    The Heat-On blocks, holders and inserts can be purchased either fluoropolymer coated or anodised. 

    The polymer coating has been designed to give additional chemical resistance to the block. This is our most popular finish. Care should be taken not to damage the coating through abrasion/scratching, high temperatures, or chemical exposure.

    Heat-On 5 L polymer coated







    The anodised version is slightly lower cost. When working at high temperatures, we would advise selecting the anodised version of Heat-On, as then there is only the risk of discolouration, rather than damage to the coating.

    Heat-On 5 L anodised
    What is the maximum temperature of Heat-On?
    Our general guidance for Heat-On is that blocks (including inserts) and covers can be used at up to 200°C without damage to the block or cover, and that up to 260°C could be achieved but there is a risk of some slight damage – polymer-coated Heat-On blocks may have some coating degradation, anodised blocks may become discoloured, and PTFE covers may experience some distortion.
     
    For the polymer-coated blocks, 200˚C is fine but above this the coating may be damaged by prolonged high temperatures.  Very high temperatures are more likely to lead to more damage (peeling etc.).

    Anodised blocks do not have this risk of coating damage.  At very high temperatures, the block may become discoloured, but this is an appearance issue only.  

    We can’t give data on exactly when (times and temperatures) damage starts / is significant; in addition to temperature, the risk/extent of any damage will be affected by factors such as how old the blocks etc. are, how much they’ve been used previously, and what chemical exposure they’ve had.
     
    In terms of the maximum temperature a Heat-On block is physically able to reach, this will depend on the heat source, heat transfer and heat loss etc. – various factors including the particular magnetic stirring hotplate used, the load to be heated, and the ambient temperature etc.  Some customers report adding insulation to the flask, and reaching temperatures as high as 280˚C, although we cannot make any guarantees.
     
    If you would like to work at high temperatures, we would advise selecting the anodised version of Heat-On, as then there is only the risk of discolouration, rather than coating coming off.
    The flow of cooling water through my Carousel reflux head has reduced or been blocked. What is the cause, and what can I do?
    You may have a build-up of limescale in the reflux head, due to extended use with hard water.

    We advise you try descaling the reflux head.  We can provide instructions on how we suggest you do this.

    If the reflux head has a lot of limescale, you may need to repeat the procedure to clear the blockage.  If you cannot restore good water flow, please let us know.

    To prevent limescale build-up, we recommend you descale regularly if you need to use hard water, or preferably use pure/soft water for the reflux head cooling if possible.
    What is the height of Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo?

    Current/existing Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo, with Radleys RS overhead stirrers (or Heidolph RZR stirrers)

    The framework is 1080 mm high, so if you position the overhead stirrer on the frame so that its top is level with the top of the support rods or lower, this will be the system height.

    NB. If you have a particularly long vessel, and/or particularly tall glassware lid accessories, your total system height will be taller than this.

    UPDATE: longer support rods for use with new Hei-TORQUE stirrer motors

    Following the discontinuation of Heidolph RZR and Radleys RS overhead stirrers and the introduction of the Heidolph Hei-TORQUE range, we have designed longer support rods (poles) for Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo.

    This is to enable use of the larger Hei-TORQUE stirrer motors with our longest vessel (5 L standard shape), whilst having space under the vessel to remove the piston.

    Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo systems will start being supplied with these longer rods later in the year.

    With the longer support rods the framework increases to 1103 mm tall, and with Hei-TORQUE Precision 400 (the largest stirrer motor), the total system height is 1195 mm (excluding any tall glassware). This gives a 115 mm clearance below the piston of the RR135000 5 L standard shape vessel.
    How do I choose between standard shape vessels and process shape vessels?

    For Reactor-Ready (including Reactor-Ready Duo) and Lara, for most vessel volumes you can choose between standard or process shape.

    Standard vessels are generally longer and narrower -

    Reactor-Ready 5 L standard shape vessel

    - while process vessels are generally shorter and wider.

    Reactor-Ready 5 L process shape vessel

    All the process vessels have an approximate ratio of 1:1.25 for internal diameter to jacketed internal height, to mimic plant-scale reactors.  (For standard shape vessels, the ratio varies between vessel volumes.)

    For the large 5 L vessel, we tend to recommend the process shape for use with Reactor-Ready or Reactor-Ready Duo if possible, as this gives more space below the vessel than the standard shape.

    For Reactor-Ready Duo, consider which vessels will fit together - see the separate FAQ entry, 'Which vessels will fit together in a Reactor-Ready Duo frame?'  If you want two large volume vessels, the narrower standard shape may be required.

    Another difference between the two vessel shapes is the vessel kits (which include the vessel, a PTFE stirrer, a Pt100 temperature probe and a temperature probe adapter) - standard vessel kits include an anchor stirrer, while process vessel kits contain a turbine stirrer.

    For Reactor-Ready Pilot, all vessels are process shape.

    How do I choose between single jacketed and vacuum jacketed vessels?

    Vacuum jacketed vessels are particularly recommended for use with applications at low temperatures.

    A vacuum jacket (outside the oil jacket) provides insulation, minimising cold/heat loss from the vessel and so improving efficiency.  It means the outer surface of the vessel does not reach such extreme temperatures (reduced touch hazard), plus there is reduced frosting and condensation for improved contents visibility when cooling.

    Vacuum jacketed vessel pistons feature double O-rings at the top of the piston, to further improve the sealing, particularly useful at very low temperatures.  The design of these vessels ensures maximum isolation of the piston seal from hot/cold thermal fluid, by positioning the sealing O-rings in an environment surrounded by a vacuum, thereby minimising heat transfer.

    Reactor-Ready single jacketed and vacuum jacketed vessels

    Single jacketed vessels are a popular alternative.  They are lower cost than vacuum jacketed vessels. They also take up less space (something to consider if using a Reactor-Ready Duo).

    Can you supply a Findenser with a B29 joint at both ends?

    It is not possible to manufacture a Findenser with a B29 socket in addition to a B29 cone, as B29 would be too big for the outer metal fins section to fit over onto the glass body.

    If you need a B29 joint at both ends, order:

    • RR31102 Findenser B29 Cone, B24 Socket - 400 mm long

    plus

    • RR139142 Enlarging Adapter Ordinary B24 to B29 (to fit in at the top, to enlarge the B24 socket to B29).
    Which vessels will fit together in a Reactor-Ready Duo frame?
    Most combinations of vessels are possible, but some very wide vessels cannot be used together in Reactor-Ready Duo.

    There are compatibility tables for your reference in the Reactor-Ready and Reactor-Ready Duo leaflet.

    Considering two of the same vessels:
    • Two 2 L vessels of any type will fit together
    • Two 3 L single jacketed vessels will fit together, but two 3 L vacuum jacketed vessels will not fit together
    • Two 5 L vessels will only fit together if they're single jacketed and standard (not process) shape
     If you need any more information, please contact us, and we'll be happy to advise.
    Is Findenser compatible with StarFish?

    Currently, Findenser is not compatible with StarFish. The reasons are:

    • The large diameter of Findensers compared to standard condensers mean that with the standard StarFish clamps, the Findensers could not be positioned correctly above the flasks – i.e. the set-up would not fit.
    • Findenser is an air condenser and dissipates/radiates heat to the environment. It needs the surrounding air temperature to be significantly cooler than the temperature of the vapour (solvent boiling point) to enable efficient condensing. If multiple Findensers were clamped close together, this could result in increased ambient temperature around the Findensers and so reduced performance.
    In the future, R&D work may lead to the two products being compatible.

    Please contact us if you would like to discuss this further.
    Can I buy a replacement black plastic ring for my piston?

    The black plastic ring that is part of the piston handle can be replaced.

    For Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara - 15 mm piston:

    • 435-1423: Loosening Ring 14/23 (Pack of 10)

    For Reactor-Ready Pilot - 25 mm piston:

    • 435-2429: Loosening Ring 24/29 (Pack of 10)

    Reactor-Ready Pilot piston - RR166070 Piston 25 mm for Single & Vacuum Jacketed Vessel









    Please note, this is not a part that customers commonly need to replace.  In order to reduce any risk of damage to this part in future, please take note of the following:

    1. When the O-rings/piston are in good condition and are sealing properly, this should prevent chemicals leaking down to the black loosening ring.  The piston O-rings (and the piston itself) should be regularly checked and replaced as required.
    2. You should also be careful not to apply lots of force to the piston to remove it, as this could damage the piston / loosening ring.
    I have a Carousel 6 Classic, a Carousel 12 Classic, and/or a Tornado Classic. Can I still buy parts for it?
    We do still sell parts such as glassware for our customers with Carousel 6/12 Classic and Tornado Classic systems.  Please contact us for details, and ensure you specify you have a Classic version.

    Please note that some of the current Plus parts are not compatible with Classic.  For example, the thread at the top of the Carousel 12 tubes and Carousel 6 reflux tubes, and so inside the PTFE caps and Tornado caps, were different for Classic than for Plus, as shown below.

    Carousel Classic v. Plus thread
    Can I buy replacement caps/seals for unused lid ports of my jacketed lab reactor lid?

    Reactor-Ready Pilot lid - Rodaviss sealing caps









    The part numbers for the standard Rodaviss sealing caps (red plastic caps with grey seals inside) are as follows (select the appropriate joint size):

    • 322-1926: Sealing Cap with PTFE Face 19/26 (Pack of 10)
    • 322-1926/1: Single 19/26 Sealing Cap PTFE Face (Pack of 1)
    • 322-2429: Sealing Cap with PTFE Face 24/29 (Pack of 10)
    • 322-2429/1: Single 24/29 Sealing Cap PTFE Face (Pack of 1)
    • 322-2932: Sealing Cap with PTFE Face 29/32 (Pack of 10)
    • 322-2932/1: Single 29/32 Sealing Cap PTFE Face (Pack of 1)
    • 322-3435: Sealing Cap with PTFE Face 34/35 (Pack of 10)
    • 322-3435/1: Single 34/35 Sealing Cap PTFE Face (Pack of 1)
    • 322-4540: Sealing Cap with PTFE Face 45/40 (Pack of 10)
    • 322-4540/1: Single 45/40 Sealing Cap PTFE Face (Pack of 1)

    The grey seals are not available to purchase separately.

    However, for optimal performance, we would advise that glass cone stoppers are used to seal unused lid ports instead, particularly when working with vacuum, or very corrosive chemicals.  Glass cone stoppers do not have a seal/face that could come out, give great sealing, and have excellent chemical resistance.  Better vacuum levels can be obtained when using glass cone stoppers rather than Rodaviss sealing caps.

    • RR139027: Glass Cone Stopper B19 (Pack of 1)
    • RR139029: Glass Cone Stopper B24 (Pack of 1)
    • RR139031: Glass Cone Stopper B29 (Pack of 1)
    • RR139033: Glass Cone Stopper B34 (Pack of 1)
    • RR139378: Glass Cone Stopper B45 (Pack of 1)

    Glass cone stoppers are also available in US 'A' joints.
    Glass cone stopper

    I want to seal unused sidearms of Carousel 6 Plus flasks. What are the part numbers?

    The part numbers for the standard Rodaviss sealing caps (red plastic caps with grey seals inside) are as follows (select the appropriate joint size):

    • RR99051: B14/23 Rodaviss Sealing Cap (Pack of 10)
    • RR99043: B24/29 Rodaviss Sealing Cap (Pack of 10)

    The grey seals are not available separately.

    Carousel 6 Plus sidearm sealing cap




    However, a better option to seal unused sidearms would be a Rodaviss glass cone stopper. These are more durable, more chemically resistant, and give better sealing.

    • 480514: Rodaviss Cone Stopper B14/23 (Pack of 1)
    • RR139029: Glass Cone Stopper B24/29 (Pack of 1)
    Glass cone stopper
    I've broken a white or black connector (for water or gas) on my unit. Can I replace it?
    The white (or black) plastic connectors for water or gas (we call them 'quick connects' or 'quick release fittings') on StarFish, Carousel 6 Plus and 12 Plus, GreenHouse Plus and GreenHouse Blowdown units are all available to purchase as spare parts.

    StarFish water manifold - quick connects










    Please consult the relevant 'quick connects' guide (download from our website on the Technical Information Downloads page) or alternatively contact us so we can help you identify the correct part, including a photo if possible.
    Can/should I change the O-rings on my jacketed lab reactor piston? Part numbers?

    O-ring materials have been specially selected, but all O-rings will deteriorate with use over time (through use at low/high temperatures, abrasion/stress from chemical residue/particles, and contact with chemicals).

    It's important to regularly check the O-rings on your Reactor-Ready, Duo, Pilot or Lara piston (bottom outlet valve) and replace as required, to prevent any significant leaks.

    Piston O-rings are FEP-encapsulated silicone as standard.  For Reactor-Ready Pilot, the top two O-rings are also available in Chemraz, which is recommended if working above +150˚C.

    Reactor-Ready Pilot piston - RR166070 Piston 25 mm for Single & Vacuum Jacketed Vessel









    The white piston itself should also be checked and replaced if required.

    The part numbers and descriptions for the pistons and O-rings are as follows:

    Reactor-Ready, Reactor-Ready Duo and Lara pistons are 15 mm; Reactor-Ready Pilot pistons are 25 mm.

    • RR161100: Piston 15 mm for Single Jacketed Vessel
    • RR166055: Piston 15 mm for Vacuum Jacketed Vessel 
    • RR166070: Piston 25 mm for Single & Vacuum Jacketed Vessel
    • RR166100: Replacement 15 mm Piston Top O-Ring
    • RR166102: Replacement 15 mm Piston Middle O-Ring
    • RR166104: Replacement 25 mm Piston Top O-Ring (Pack of 2)
    • RR166106: Replacement 25 mm Piston Middle O-Ring
    • RR210074: Replacement 25 mm Piston Top O-Ring Chemraz 0°C-230°C (Pack of 2)

    Standard O-rings are also available as part of the Maintenance Kits.

    • RR121150 Reactor-Ready Maintenance Kit
    • RR210100 Reactor-Ready Pilot Maintenance Kit 
    • LR199010 Lara Maintenance Kit 
    Which condenser should be used with Reactor-Ready Pilot?

    For Reactor-Ready Pilot, we recommend the use of Radleys large condensers with a high surface area for condensing the vapour generated from the larger vessels.

    Our general guidance is:

    • RR139300: Large Double Coil Rodaviss Condenser 60mm B34 + GL18 + fittings should be suitable for up to 5-10 L vessels.
    • RR139302: Large Double Coil Rodaviss Condenser 85mm B34 + GL18 + fittings should be suitable for up to 15-20 L vessels.
    The total coil surface areas for RR139300 and RR139302 are 0.13 m2 and 0.25 m2 respectively.
    Can I have a CE declaration for Reactor-Ready?
    CE is not applicable for Reactor-Ready.  

    CE marking only applies to certain types of products, such as those with electronics or moving mechanical parts.  As Reactor-Ready does not fall into one of these categories, CE certification does not apply.
    What is the maximum overhead stirrer speed (rpm) for Reactor-Ready, Duo and Pilot systems / stirrer guides?
    500 rpm for continuous operation and 800 rpm for short periods.
    What shapes of stirrers are available for Reactor-Ready and other reactors? What are the stirrers made from?

    There are three types of rotor shapes available as standard for our jacketed lab reactors:

    • Anchor
    • Turbine
    • Retreat curve.  
    Reactor-Ready stirrer designs












    For Reactor-Ready and Lara, standard vessel kits include anchor stirrers and process vessel kits include turbine stirrers.  Reactor-Ready Pilot vessel kits include turbine stirrers.

    The rotors are PTFE, with the shafts comprising a stainless steel core encapsulated in a PTFE coating.

    Can you supply overhead stirrer motors for ATEX areas?
    None of the Radleys (or Heidolph) overhead stirrers are ATEX (Ex) compliant.  The best option is for the overhead stirrer to be situated in a non-ATEX area if possible e.g. inside a fume hood and operating below the lower explosive limits of any flammable materials, if the customer’s site safety experts determine this is acceptable.  

    If this is not possible, we can supply Buddeberg air stirrers that are ATEX rated.
    Can I buy a replacement stirrer guide for a Lara Classic (i.e. serial number 1001 to 1060)?
    Yes; the part number is:
    • LR171150: Lara Classic Stirrer Guide (serial numbers CLR-1001 to CLR-1060)
    Please note, LR171150 stirrer guide is a new, improved PTFE stirrer guide, similar to the Reactor-Ready design. (Lara Classics were originally supplied with a metal stirrer guide.)
    Can I have a CE declaration for a Radleys Data Hub?
    Yes, we can send the CE declaration to you.
    Can I have a CE declaration for a Huber unit?
    Yes, but we need to know the serial number of the unit first please.  If you don't have it yet, we can send you an example CE declaration for the model.
    Can a Huber unit with Pilot ONE controller be controlled by a PLC via Ethernet, and if so, how?

    It is possible to control a new Huber unit with Pilot ONE controller via a PLC/DCS etc.

    Pilot ONE controllers have an Ethernet interface included as standard.

    Setting up and using the Ethernet connection:

    • To activate the connection: in the Pilot ONE control panel navigate to Menu > Interfaces > Ethernet > Remote Access > Always On.
    • Set the Huber unit’s IP address as desired.  This setting can be accessed at Menu > Interfaces > Ethernet > IP Address
    • Establish a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection to the Huber unit’s IP address and use the TCP port 8101.
    • Use the Huber commands:
      PB commands (recommended)
      PP/LAI commands
    • You cannot use the Modbus TCP protocol.

    For information on the RS232 and AIF (4-20 mA) options for new Huber units with Pilot ONE, please refer to the separate FAQ entries.

    How much does silicone oil expand by when heated?
    The general ‘rule of thumb’ for silicone oil is that it expands (or contracts) by approximately 10% per 100°C (1% per 10°C).  Note that this relationship can vary depending on the temperature and the particular thermal fluid used.  (The datasheet of your thermal fluid might contain some relevant information.)  

    When estimating the expansion of oil with heating, you need to be consider the oil in the Huber unit, in the hoses and in the application (e.g. vessel jacket).
    Can I use Findenser to condense diethyl ether?
    Some very low boiling solvents are just too difficult to condense with any kind of air condenser. In such circumstances a water-cooled condenser may be the only option. Diethyl ether in particular is very difficult to condense. Findenser will cope with smaller volumes (up to 100 ml in a 250 ml flask) with a hotplate/heating block accurately controlled at no more than 5°C above boiling point.
    Can an inert gas flow be used with Findenser?
    A flow of inert gas (e.g. nitrogen) through the flask will encourage evaporation and may reduce performance of the Findenser.  If inert gas is required it should be introduced through the top joint of the Findenser, with all flask ports sealed (using a suitable bubbler to avoid build-up of pressure) and not through a flask sidearm or joint at the bottom of the Findenser.  Gas flow should be kept to a minimum.
    Will Findenser work in a warm lab?
    Because Findenser uses air to cool and dissipate heat, it requires the ambient air temperature to be significantly cooler than the boiling temperature.  

    At relatively high ambient temperatures, there may be insufficient air cooling for the heat from the Findenser fins to be effectively dissipated, which may result in Findenser not containing the solvent.

    However, the performance will depend on how different the ambient air temperature is from the boiling point temperature, so there should not be a problem with condensing high boiling point solvents.

    To maximise performance, ensure there is sufficient airflow around the Findenser to enable effective heat dissipation.

    What is the maximum recommended volume of solvent for use with Findenser?
    • Findenser: Maximum flask size 2 litres, maximum solvent volume 1 litre.
    • Findenser Mini: Maximum flask size 250 ml, maximum solvent volume 125 ml.
    What is the optimum volume of solvent to be used in a flask with Findenser?
    It is standard ‘good practice’ when heating solvents for a maximum of half the flask volume, e.g. 50 ml in a 100 ml flask, 1 litre in a 2 litre flask, to be used.  If a flask is over-filled, the condensation load on the Findenser may exceed its ability to cool and condense effectively.  In such circumstances Findenser will not contain the solvent.
    What is the chemical resistance of Findenser?

    General guidance

    Findenser is resistant to the majority of solvents and splash-resistant to dilute acids and alkalis at room temperature.  Extended exposure to acids or alkalis will attack the outer metal surface of the Findenser.  It is important to clean off any chemical spills immediately after they occur.

    Further detail

    The inner body of Findenser and the cone/socket, i.e. the wetted parts that come into contact with the substance being evaporated during normal use, are borosilicate glass 3.3, which has very good chemical resistance. (See TB 101 Glass Technical Data sheet available here for further details.)

    The metal finned jacket is anodised aluminium and the plug and seal are acetal and HT silicone.

    Please consider the chemical compatibility of your chemicals with these materials. You can consult chemical resistance tables online.  

    It is not feasible for our R&D Laboratory to test Findenser with every possible chemical, so we cannot provide data.

    As well as wiping off any spills, ensure there is not a significant concentration of corrosive chemical vapours in the air around the Findenser (e.g. by using the Findenser within our guidelines, so the solvent is retained in the Findenser/flask).

    There is an advised cleaning protocol detailed in the FAQ entry, 'Should I clean my Findenser? If yes, how?'
    Can Findenser be repaired if it breaks?
    Understandably, because Findenser is made of glass, people assume it will be easy to repair. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Why? The temperature Findenser would be exposed to during any glass repair procedure would compromise the sealants and lead to water leaks. It is also not practical or safe to disassemble Findenser to allow repair of the glass.
    Can you supply a larger Findenser?
    The additional weight and stress that a larger Findenser may place on a glass joint means that we currently have no plans to introduce a larger Findenser.
    Can/should I replace the O-rings in my Carousel 6 Plus or Carousel 12 Plus system? Part numbers?

    As a general rule, O-rings are consumables.  They should be regularly checked and replaced as required.

    It is not normal for these O-rings to need replacing very frequently, as the materials have been chosen for characteristics including chemical resistance, but their lifespan will depend on your application (which specific chemicals you use, and how you use the equipment).

    The O-rings in the white caps and on the gas outlets on the reflux head are nitrile as standard but are also available in Viton.  Please consult chemical compatibility tables to see which material is most suitable for your chemistry.

    Refluxing effectively should help minimise any damage to the O-rings; please see the instruction manual, and the FAQ entry 'Can I use a Carousel 6 Plus or Carousel 12 Plus with corrosive chemicals?', for further details.

    The part numbers are:

    Gas outlet - Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus






    • RR91060: Nitrile O-Rings 4 mm Gas Outlet – Bottom (Pack of 50)
    • RR91061: Nitrile O-Rings 3 mm Gas Outlet – Top (Pack of 50)
    • RR91062: Viton O-Rings 4 mm Gas Outlet – Bottom (Pack of 50)
    • RR91063: Viton O-Rings 3 mm Gas Outlet – Top (Pack of 50)

    Cap O-ring - Carousel 6 Plus and Carousel 12 Plus​​








    • RR98060: O-Rings for Caps – Nitrile 24 mm (Pack of 100)
    • RR98160: O-Rings for Caps – Viton 24 mm (Pack of 100)

    Replacement septa for the white caps and flask side arms, and O-rings for Rodaviss joints and wide neck couplings, are also available, with options of alternative materials in some cases.